New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities
- The Ocean Circulation Inverse Model (OCIM) result has been made avaiable by CDIAC. The model provides a new estimate of the oceanic anthropogenic CO2 sink over the industrial era (1780 to present) from assimilation of potential temperature, salinity, radiocarbon, and CFC-11 observations. This modeling effort differs from previous data-based estimates of the oceanic sink in that dynamical constraints on ocean circulation are accounted for, and the ocean circulation is explicitly modeled, allowing the calculation of oceanic storage, air-sea fluxes, and transports in a consistent manner. The resulting uncertainty of the OCIM-estimated oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage is significantly smaller than from purely data-based or model-based estimates.
- The new LDEO Database V2013, which includes data collected through 31 December 2013, has been published. In this update a total of about 2,270,000 pCO2 measurements made during 64 new cruise/ship files (including 170,770 new measurements made by the LDEO group) have been added to version 2012 for a total of more than 9.0 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2013. The data assembled include only those measured using equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems, and have been quality-controlled based upon the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis, and the internal consistency of data. A number of measured parameters relevant to pCO2 in seawater are also listed. The global pCO2 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.
- The paper Global carbon budget 2013 was published in Earth Systems Science Data (vol. 6, pp. 235–263) in June. Bob Andres and Tom Boden of CDIAC are coauthors on the paper. The paper describes data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
- Bob Andres attended the 16th GEIA Conference in Boulder, Colorado, from 10-11 June 2014. He showed a poster entitled "A new uncertainty analysis of the CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions".
- CDIAC has updated its United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) data files through 2013 (courtesy of NOAA/NCDC). Files contain monthly means of average, maximum, and minimum temperature, along with monthly precipitation totals, for 1218 U.S. stations.
- Bob Andres attended the Joint TES/SBR Principal Investigator Meeting in Potomac, MD, from 6-7 May 2014. He showed a poster entitled "Temporal, spatial, and uncertainty aspects of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion: highlights of the last two years of TES funding". Bob also was a co-author on one other presentation at the meeting.
- CDIAC has established gateway pages to and background information on atmospheric aerosols, emphasizing large data bases including satellite data and surface stations. Unlike carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and halocarbons, dust is not evenly distributed in the atmosphere. Like cloud water droplets, it tends to fall out as it travels away from its source, precluding an even distribution over the planet. Nonetheless, dust records in ice cores can provide useful information about climate, as well as about occurrences of very large volcanos which can cool the atmosphere for a few years.
- The Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations page has been updated as of March 2014.
- The number of stations in CDIAC's DayRec: An Interface for Exploring U.S. Record-Maximum/Minimum Daily Temperatures has more than doubled from 200 to 424. This was accomplished through a very slight relaxation of the missing data criteria at each station. The 200-station, 2012 version of DayRec lacked stations over the southwestern U.S. In November 2013, the addition of 224 stations improved coverage in the southwest and also increased station density over the rest of the country.
- Bob Andres attended the Development of a Community Historical Emission Inventory meeting in Hamburg, Germany from 20-21 November 2013. He gave a talk entitled "Potential contributions from the CDIAC fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory to the development of a community historical emission inventory (emission years 1850-2010?)".
- Four CDIAC data sets were updated in November:
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyMass.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.AnnualIsomass.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.db1013.2013.
- Bob Andres is a coauthor on the paper, "Estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes with GOSAT observations using two inverse modeling approaches" which was published in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8529, Remote Sensing and Modeling of the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Interactions IV, 85290G. doi:10.1117/12.979664. The authors applied two inverse modeling approaches to analysis of observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) of atmospheric carbon dioxide and produced estimates of the seasonal and interannual variations of the regional CO2 fluxes.
Bob Andres is also a coauthor on the article, "The Use of a High-Resolution Emission Data Set in a Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Model" in Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (eds J. Lin, D. Brunner, C. Gerbig, A. Stohl, A. Luhar and P. Webley), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/2012GM001263.
- Changes in the global ocean mean of carbon-13 in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) are thought to reflect the balance of erosion and sequester of carbonate over very long geologic periods and changes in the size and composition of the terrestrial active organic carbon pools over shorter time spans. CDIAC has extracted δ13CDIC observations from the GLODAP and CARINA databases covering 1990-2005 from all oceans and all depths. The combined database of 17,989 δ13CDIC observations has been used by Schmittner et al. in a new three-dimensional model of 13C cycling in the ocean to examine large-scale carbon movements. Model results suggest that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon has reduced the spatial gradients in δ13CDIC that were present in the preindustrial surface ocean.
- CDIAC has updated fossil-fuel emission estimates through 2010. Since 1751 approximately 365 billion metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have occurred since the mid-1980s. The 2010 global fossil-fuel carbon emission estimate—9,167 million metric tons of carbon—represents an all-time high and a 4.9% increase over 2009 emissions. The data visualization page for global, regional, national, and USA time series and gridded data is being updated with the 2010 estimates.
- Bob Andres conbtributed to a reply to a comment (doi:10.1038/nclimate1817) on the paper, Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends in the journal, Nature Climate Change (doi:10.1038/nclimate1925).
- AGAGE data have been updated through September 2012. Measurements of CFC-115 at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, back to April 2008 are included in this version. CFC 115 (CClF2CF3), or Chloropentafluoroethane, is an ozone-depleting substance, that was primarily used as a refrigerant. It has an atmospheric lifetime of 1700 years and a 100-year global warming potential of 7,370. The latest update also includes the following:
- Measurements of HCFC 142b (CH3CF2Cl) and HCFC 22 (CHClF2) at Jungfraujoch for August-September 2012,
- Hydrogen (H2) data for both Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, in the "gc-md" directory. These data have been converted to a new MPI2009 scale. Please see the "H2calibration_2013_v01.doc" (or "H2calibration_2013_v01.pdf" file) file for more information about this new scale.
- Recent MEDUSA methyl bromide (CH3Br) Zeppelin (Norway) site.
- Isotopes "Gateway" pages have been posted. The Gateway pages to isotope data are now posted and available by clicking on "Carbon Isotopes" "Deuterium" or "Oxygen Isotopes" in our list of atmospheric trace gases (under "Data" in our top navigation bar). As for the other gateway pages to date, either modern records or ice core data are available.
- An oxygen gateway page has been posted. Records of atmospheric oxygen since 1989 are available from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Links to data and graphics can now be found by clicking on "Oxygen" on our list of atmospheric trace gases.
- The paper Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge, by Peterson, T.C., et al., (on which CDIAC's Dale Kaiser was a lead author) has been published in the June 2013 edition of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, and includes supplementary material that was not available in the previously announced early online release.
- Bob Andres attended the 9th International Carbon Dioxide Conference in Beijing, China from 2-7 June 2013. He showed the poster, "A new look at the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption" with co-author Tom Boden of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on three other presentations at the meeting.