FACE Publications

Listed below are publications that describe enrichment studies in general, with specific reference to FACE studies; the design and operation of FACE facilities; and the results of FACE research. Where possible, links are provided directly to online publications.

Please note that this list is no longer being maintained and does not include recent publications. For more current information on FACE, please go to:http://public.ornl.gov/FACE/index.html


Akin, D. E., et al. 1994. Influence of enhanced CO2 concentration and irrigation on sudangrass digestibility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:279-287.
Akin, D. E., et al. 1995. Biodegradation of plant-cell walls, wall carbohydrates, and wall aromatics in wheat grown in ambient or enriched CO2 concentrations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 67:399-406.
Akin, D. E., et al. 1995. Effect of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on forage quality of wheat. Animal Feed Science and Technology 53:29-43.
Allen, L. H., Jr. 1992. Field techniques for exposure of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO2 and other trace gases. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:85-119.
Allen, L. H., Jr. 1992. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment field experiments: An historical overview. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:121- 134.
Allen, L. H., Jr., and S. E. Beladi. 1990. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE): Analysis of gaseous dispersion arrays for the study of rising atmospheric CO2 effects on vegetation, Progress Report 057 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide. U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Almeida, J. P., et al. 1999. Partitioning of P and the activity of root acid phosphatase in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are modified by increased atmospheric CO2 and P fertilisation. Plant and Soil 210:159-166.
Amthor, J. S. 2001. Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield review of results from experiments using various approaches to control CO2 concentration. Field Crops Research 37:1-34.
Amthor, J. S. 1998. Perspective on the relative insignificance of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration to crop yield. Field Crops Research 58:109-127.
Amthor, J. S. 1995. Terrestrial higher-plant response to increasing atmospheric [CO2] in relation to the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 1:243-274.
Andrews, J. A., et al. 1999. Separation of root respiration from total soil respiration using carbon-13 labeling during Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE). Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1429-1435.
Bhattacharya, N. C., et al. 1994. Leaf water relations of cotton in a free-air CO2-enriched environment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:171-182.
Bindi M., L. Fibbi, and F. Miglietta. 2001. Free Air Enrichment (FACE) of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): II. Growth and quality of grape and wine in response to elevated CO2 concentrations. European Journal of Agronomy 14:145­155.
Blum, H. 1993. The response of CO2-related processes in grassland ecosystems in a three-year field CO2 enrichment study, pp. 367-370 in Design and Execution of Experiments on CO2 Enrichment (E.-D. Schulze and H. A. Mooney, eds.), Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, Brussels.
Blum, H., et al. 1997. Effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization and cutting regime on the production and quality of Lolium perenne L. shoot necromass. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 18:291-295.
Bryant, J., et al. 1998. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 is modified by source:sink balance in three component species of chalk grassland swards grown in a Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Plant, Cell & Environment 21:159-168.
Bucher, J. B., et al. 1998. Growth of a deciduous tree seedling community in response to elevated CO2 and nutrient supply. Chemosphere 36:777-782.
Ceulemans, R., and M. Mousseau. 1994. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants (Tansley Review No. 71). New Phytologist127:425-446.
Cousins, A. B., et al. 2001. Reduced photorespiration and increased energy-use efficiency in young CO2-enriched sorghum leaves. New Phytologist150(2):275-284.
Craine, J. M., and P. B. Reich. 2001. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply alter leaf longevity of grassland species. New Phytologist 150(2):397-403.
Craine, J. M., et al. 2001. Grassland species effects on soil CO2 flux track the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen. New Phytologist 150(2):425-434.
Curtis, P. S., et al. 2000. Gas exchange, leaf nitrogen, and growth efficiency of Populus tremuloides in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Ecological Applications 10: 3-17.
Daepp, M., et al. 2001. Nitrogen fertilization and developmental stage alter the response of Lolium perenne to elevated CO2. New Phytologist 150(2):347-358.
DeLucia, E. H. and R. B. Thomas. 2000. Photosynthetic responses to CO2 enrichment of four hardwood species in a forest understory. Oecologia 122(1):11-19.
DeLucia, E. H., et al. 1999. Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Science 284:1177-1179.
Dickson, R. E., et al. 1998. Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3. Can. J. For. Res. 28:1706-1716.
Dickson, R. E., et al. 2001. Forest atmosphere carbon transfer storage-II (FACTS II) - The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACE) project in an overview. USDA Forest Service North Central Experiment Station, General Tech. Rep. NC-214. 68 pp.
Dugas, W. A., and P. J. Pinter, Jr. 1994. Introduction to special issue: The cotton FACE project. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:1-2.
Edwards, G. R., et al. 2001. The effects of elevated CO2 on seed production and seedling recruitment in a sheep-grazed pasture. Oecologia 127:383-394.
Edwards, G. R., et al. 2001. Seedling performance of pasture species under elevated CO2. New Phytologist 150(2):359-369.
Edwards, N. T., et al. 2002. Stem respiration increases in CO2 enriched sweetgum trees. New Phytologist 155:239-248.
Ellsworth, D. S. 1999. CO2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: Are CO2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected? Plant, Cell and Environment 22:461-472.
Ellsworth, D. S., et al. 1995. Leaf and canopy responses to elevated CO2 in a pine forest under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. Oecologia 104:139-146.
Estiarte, M., et al. 1999. Free-air CO2 enrichment of wheat: leaf flavonoid concentration throughout the growth cycle. Physiologia Plantarum 105:423-433.
Evans, L. S., and G. R. Hendrey. 1992. Responses of cotton foliage to short-term fluctuations in CO2 partial pressures. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11.
Farrow, T., et al. 1992. Signal delay and time constant of the CO2 concentration measurement system of the FACE experiment at Maricopa, AZ. Report No. 48282. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York.
Fischer, B. U., et al. 1997. Source-sink relations in Lolium perenne L. as reflected by carbohydrate concentrations in leaves and pseudo-stems during regrowth in a Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Plant, Cell and Environment 20:945-952.
Frehner, M., et al. 1997. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration in Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment. Acta Oecologica 18:297-304.
Garcia, R. L., et al. 1998. Photosynthesis and conductance of spring-wheat leaves: field response to continuous free-air atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Plant, Cell and Environment 21:659-669.
Gloser, V. et al. 2000. Soil mineral nitrogen availability was unaffected by elevated atmospheric pCO2 in a four year old field experiment (Swiss FACE). Plant and Soil 227(1-2):291-299.
Greenwood, P., et al. 1982. A computer-controlled system for exposing field crops to gaseous air pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 16:2261-2266.
Grant, R. F. 1998. Simulation in Ecosys of root growth response to contrasting soil water and nitrogen. Ecological Modelling 107:237-264.
Grant, R. F., et al. 1995. Carbon-dioxide effects on crop energy-balance - testing Ecosys with a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Agronomy Journal 87:446-457.
Grant, R. F., et al. 1995. Interaction between atmospheric CO2 concentration and water deficit on gas exchange and crop growth: Testing of Ecosys with data from the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Global Change Biology 1:443-454.
Grant, R. F., et al. 1999. Crop water relations under different CO2 and irrigation: testing of Ecosys with the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95:27-51.
Griffin K. L., O. R. Anderson, M. D. Gastrich, J. D. Lewis, G. Lin, W. Schuster, J. R. Seemann, D. T. Tissue, M. H. Turnbull, and D. Whitehead. 2001. Plant growth in elevated CO2 alters mitochondrial number and chloroplast fine structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98: 2473-2478.
Grossman, S., et al. 1995. Simulated responses of energy and water fluxes to ambient atmosphere and Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment in wheat. Journal of Biogeography 22:601-609.
Grossman-Clarke, S., et al. 2001. Modelling a spring wheat crop under elevated CO2 and drought. New Phytologist 150(2):315-335.
Gunderson C. A., J. D. Sholtis, S. D. Wullschleger, D. T. Tissue, P. J. Hanson, and R. J. Norby. 2002. Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L) plantation during three years of CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell & Environment 25: 379-394.
Hartwig, U. A., et al. 1996. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: one key to understand the response of temperate grassland ecosystems to elevated CO2? pp. 253-264 in Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities (Ch. Koerner and F. Bazazz, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.
Hartwig, U. A., et al. 2000. Due to symbiotic N2 fixation, five years of elevated atmospheric pCO2 had no effect on the N concentration of plant litter in fertile, mixed grassland ecosystem. Plant and Soil 224(1):43-50.
He, Y., et al. 1996. Effects of FACE system operation on the micrometeorology of a loblolly pine stand. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 39:1551-1556.
Heagle, A. S., et al. 1999. Ozone stress, carbon dioxide enrichment, and nitrogen fertility interactions in cotton. Crop Science 39:731-741.
Hebeisen, T., et al. 1997. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilisation on yield of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne. Acta Oecologica/Oecologia Plantarum 18:277-284.
Hebeisen, T., et al. 1997. Growth responses of Trifolium repens L. and Lolium perenne L. as monocultures and bi-species mixture to free-air CO2 enrichment and management. Global Change Biology 3:149-160.
Hendrey, G. R. 1992. The DOE/USDA FACE Program: Goal, objectives, and results through 1989. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:75-83.
Hendrey, G. R. 1992. Global greenhouse studies: Need for a new approach to ecosystem manipulation. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11.
Hendrey, G. R., ed. 1992. FACE: Free-Air CO2 Enrichment for Plant Research in the Field. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Hendrey, G. R., and B. A. Kimball. 1994. The FACE Program. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:3-14.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1988. Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility development: I. Concept, prototype design and performance, Progress Report 045 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide, U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1988. Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility development: II. Field tests at Yazoo City, MS, 1987, Progress Report 046 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide, U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1992. Control of carbon dioxide in unconfined field plots, pp. 309-327 in Design and Execution of Experiments on CO2 Enrichment (E.-D. Schulze and H. A. Mooney, eds.), Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, Brussels.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1992. Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment: Development, progress, results, pp. 17 ff. in CO2 and Biosphere (J. Rozema, H. Lambers, S. C. van de Geijn, and M. L. Cambridge, eds.), Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1993. Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment: development, progress, results. Vegetatio 104:17-31.
Hendrey, G. R., et al. 1999. A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 5:293-309.
Hendrix, D. L. 1992. Influence of elevated CO2 on leaf starch of field-grown cotton. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:223-226.
Hendrix, D. L., et al. 1994. Influence of elevated CO2 and mild water-stress on nonstructural carbohydrates in field-grown cotton tissues. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:153-162.
Herrick, J. D., and R. B. Thomas. 1999. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the photosynthetic light response of sun and shade leaves of canopy sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua) in a foresta ecosystem. Tree Physiology 19:779-786.
Hileman, D. R., et al. 1992. Distribution of carbon dioxide within and above a cotton canopy growing in the FACE system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:187-194.
Hileman, D. R., et al. 1992. Responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated carbon dioxide in field-grown cotton. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:227-231.
Hileman, D. R., et al. 1994. Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration of field-grown cotton exposed to Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) and differential irrigation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:189-207.
Hiroshi Koizumi, et al. 2001. Effect of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on CO2 exchange at the flood-water surface in a rice paddy field. New Phytologist 150(2):231-239.
Hoosbeek, M. R., et al. 2001. Limited effect of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. New Phytologist 150(2):459-463.
Huluka, G., et al. 1994. Effects of elevated CO2 and water-stress on mineral concentration of cotton. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:141-152.<
Hunsaker, D. J., et al. 1996. Carbon dioxide enrichment and irrigation effects on wheat evapotranspiration and water use efficiency. Transactions of the Asae 39:1345-1355.
Huxman, T. E., et al. 1998. Photosynthetic down-regulation in Larrea tridentata exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2: Interaction with drought under glasshouse and field (FACE) exposure. Plant, Cell and Environment 21:1153-1161.
Idso, S. B., et al. 1994. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on the light response curve of net photosynthesis in cotton leaves. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:183-188.
Ineson, P., et al. 1996. Quantification of soil carbon inputs under elevated CO2: C3 plants in a C4 soil. Plant and Soil 187:345-350.
Ineson, P., et al. 1998. Soil gas fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 beneath Lolium perenne under elevated CO2: The Swiss Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment experiment. Plant and Soil 198:89-95.
Isebrands, J. G., et al. 1999. Effects of interacting elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on growth and physiological processes in Populus tremuloides. Proc. International Poplar Symposium, Orleans, France, September 13-17, 1999.
Isebrands, J. G., et al. 2000. Interacting effects of multiple stresses on growth and physiological processes in northern forests. In: Responses of Northern U.S. Forests to Environmental Change. Ecological Studies 139. Mickler, R. E., et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlag, pp. 149-180.
Johnson, D.W., R. J. Norby, and B.A. Hungate. 2001. Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in forests. pp. 237-252 In: D. F. Karnosky, R. Ceulemans, G. E. Scarascia- Mugnozza, and J. L. Innes (eds.), The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Jongen, M., et al. 1995. The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on the root growth of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens grown in a FACE system. Global Change Biology 1:361-371.
Jordan, D. N., et al. 1999. Biotic, abiotic and performance aspects of the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility. Global Change Biology 5:659-668.
Karnosky, D. F., et al. 1999. Effects of tropospheric O-3 on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: Results from an O-3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116:311-322.
Karnosky, D. F., B. Gielen, R. Ceulemans, W. H. Schlesinger, R. J. Norby, E. Oksanen, R. Matyssek, and G. R. Hendrey. 2001. FACE systems for studying the impacts of greenhouse gases on forest ecosystems. pp. 297-324 In: D. F. Karnosky, R. Ceulemans, G. E. Scarascia-Mugnozza, and J. L. Innes (eds.), The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Karnosky, D. F. 2000. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest tree populations. Proc. XXI IUFRO World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Forests and Society: The Role of Research Sub-Plenary Sessions 1:133-139.
Karnosky, D. F., et al. 1998. Genetic control of responses to interacting O3 and CO2 in Populus tremuloides. Chemosphere 36:807-812.
Karnosky, D. F., et al. 1999. Genetic implications for forest trees of increasing levels of greenhouse gases and UV-B radiation. Forest Genetics and Sustainability 63:111-124.
Kartschall, T., et al. 1995. A simulation of phenology, growth, water and gas exchange under ambient atmosphere and Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Maricopa, AZ, for wheat. Journal of Biogeography 22:611-622.
Kim, H. Y., et al. 2001. Growth and nitrogen uptake of CO2. New Phytologist 150(2):223-229.
Kimball, B. A. 1992. Cost comparisons among Free-Air CO2 Enrichment, open-top chamber, and sunlit controlled-environment chamber methods of CO2 exposure. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:265- 270.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1986. Effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the growth, water relations, and physiology of plants grown under optimal and limiting levels of water and nitrogen, Progress Report 039 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide, U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1987. Effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the growth, water relations, and physiology of plants grown under optimal and limiting levels of water and nitrogen, Progress Report 049 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide, U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1988. Elevated CO2: Modeling crop responses, interaction with temperature, effects on trees and insects, Progress Report 052 in Green Report Series, Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide, U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1992. Cotton leaf and boll temperatures in the 1989 FACE experiment. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:233-240.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1992. List of data file names, 1989 FACE experiment, Maricopa, Arizona. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1992. Weather, soils, cultural practices, and cotton growth data from the 1989 FACE experiment in IBSNAT format. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:271-308.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1992. The 1989 FACE data files in IBSNAT format. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1994. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on energy-balance and evapotranspiration of cotton. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:259-278.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1995. Productivity and water use of wheat under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. Global Change Biology 1:429-442.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1997. Comparison of responses of vegetation to elevated CO2 in open-air and enclosed exposure facilities, pp. 113-130 in Advances in Carbon Dioxide Research, ASA Special Publication No. 61, (L.H. Allen, Jr., M.B. Kirkham, D.M. Olszyk, and C.E. Whitman, J. M. eds.), Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, Wisconsin.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1997. Effects of elevated CO2 on cotton and wheat as determined from FACE experiments. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 52:787-796.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 1999. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and soil nitrogen effects on energy balance and evapotranspiration of wheat. Water Resources Research 35:1179-1190.
Kimball, B. A., et al. 2001. Elevated CO2, drought and soil nitrogen effects on wheat grain quality. New Phytologist 150(2):295-303.
King, J. S., et al. 1999. Clonal variation in above- and belowground growth responses of Populus tremuloides Michaux: Influence of soil warming and nutrient availability. Plant and Soil 217:119-130.
King, J. S., et al. 2001. Chemistry and decomposition of litter from Populus tremuloides Michaux grown at elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying N availability. Global Change Biology 7:65-74
King, J. S., et al. 2001. Fine root biomass and fluxes of soil carbon in young stands of paper birch and trembling aspen as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. Oecologia 128:237-250.
King, J. S., et al. 2001. Correlation between the chemistry of foliage and litter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) as influenced by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and its decomposition. Oikos 94:403-416.
LaDeau, S. L. and J. S. Clark. 2001. Rising CO2 Levels and the Fecundity of Forest Trees. Science 292 (5514): 95-98.
Leadley, P. W., et al. 1997. Screen-aided CO2 control (SACC): A middle ground between FACE and open-top chambers. Oecologia Plantarum 18:207-219.
Leavitt, S. W., et al. 1994. Carbon isotope dynamics of CO2-enriched FACE cotton and soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:87-101.
Leavitt, S. W., et al. 1996. Carbon isotopes and carbon turnover in cotton and wheat FACE experiments. Plant and Soil 187:147-155.
Leavitt, S. W., et al. 2001. Stable-carbon isotopes and soil organic carbon in wheat under CO2 enrichment. New Phytologist 150(2):305-314.
Lee, T. D., et al. 2001. Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 150(2):405-418.
Lewin, K. F., et al. 1992. Brookhaven National Laboratory Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment facility. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:135-141.
Lewin, K. F., et al. 1994. Design and application of a Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment facility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:15-29.
Li, A. G., et al. 1997. Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on rate and duration of apical development of spring wheat. Crop Science 37:789-796.
Lipfert, F. W., et al. 1991. Application of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to a forest canopy, pp. 167-170 in Proceedings, 20th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, September 1991 (R. S. Lindzen, E. N. Lorenz, and G. W. Platzman, eds.), American Meteorological Society, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Lipfert, F. W., et al. 1992. Performance analysis of the BNL FACE gas injection system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:143-163.
Luan, J. S., et al. 1999. Responses of a loblolly pine ecosystem to CO2 enrichment: a modeling analysis. Tree Physiology 19:279-287.
Luescher, A. and J. Noesberger. 1997. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in the response of grasses and legumes to Free Air CO2 Enrichment. Acta Oecologica 18:269-276.
Luescher, A., et al. 1996. Differences between legumes and non-legumes of permanent grassland in their responses to Free Air Carbon-Dioxide Enrichment: Its effect on competition in a multispecies mixture, pp. 287-300 in Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities (Ch. Koerner and F. Bazazz, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.
Luescher, A., et al. 1998. Longterm responsiveness to free air CO2 enrichment of functional types, species and genotypes of plants from fertile permanent grassland. Oecologia 113:37-45.
Luo, Y. 2001. Trancient ecosystem responses to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE): experimental evidence and methods of analysis. New Phytologist 152:3-8
Luo, Y., B. Medlyn, D. Hui, D. Ellsworth, J.F. Reynolds, and G. Katul. 2001. Gross primary productivity in the Duke Forest: modeling synthesis of the free-air CO2 enrichment experiment and eddy-covariance measurements. Ecological Applications 11:239-252
Mankovska, B., et al. 1998. Impact of ambient tropospheric O3, CO2, and particulates on the epicuticular waxes of aspen clones differing in O3 tolerance. Ekológia 18:200-210.
Marilley, L. and M. Aragno. 1999. Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities differing in degree of proximity of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens roots. Applied Soil Ecology 13(2):127-136.
Marilley, L., et al. 1997. Diversite bacterienne en fonction de la proximite aux racines de deux plantes de prairie par analyse de profils de restriction d'une bibliotheque de genes rADN 16S. Bulletin de la Societe Suisse Pedologie 21:59-64.
Marilley, L., et al. 1998. Bacterial diversity in the bulk soil and rhizospheric fraction of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens as revealed by PCR profile analysis of 16s rDNA. Plant and Soil 198:219-224.
Marilley, L., et al. 1999. Influence of an elevated atmospheric CO2 content on soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities beneath Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens under field (FACE) conditions. Microbial Ecology 38(1): 39-49.
Mauney, J. R., et al. 1992. Growth and yield of cotton exposed to Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:213-222.
Mauney, J. R., et al. 1994. Growth and yield of cotton in response to a free-air carbon-dioxide enrichment (FACE) environment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:49-67.
McLeod, A. R. 1995. An open-air system for exposure of young forest trees to sulfur dioxide and ozone. Plant, Cell and Environment 18:215-226.
McLeod A.R., Alexander K., Hatcher P. 1985. Open-air fumigation of fieldcrops: criteria and design for a new experimental system. Atmospheric Environment 19:1639­-1649.
McLeod, A.R., and S.P. Long. 1999. Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) in global change research:  A review. Advances in Ecological Research 28:1-56.
Miglietta, F., et al. 1992. Studying the effect of elevated CO2 in the open in a naturally enriched environment in central Italy, pp. 391 ff. in CO2 and Biosphere (J. Rozema, H. Lambers, S. C. van de Geijn, and M. L. Cambridge, eds.), Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.
Miglietta, F., et al. 1996. The effect of Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) and soil nitrogen availability on the photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Photosynthesis Research 47:281-290.
Miglietta, F., et al. 1997. Free-air CO2 enrichment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): Design and performance of the CO2-fumigation system. Global Change Biology 3:417-425.
Miglietta, F., et al. 1998. Free air CO2 enrichment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): development, growth and yield. Global Change Biology 163-172.
Miglietta, F., et al. 2001. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) of a poplar plantation: the POPFACE fumigation system. New Phytologist 150(2):465-476.
Montealegre, C. M. 2000. Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters microbial population structure in a pasture ecosystem. Global Change Biology 163-172.
Mooi, I. J., et al. 1985. Research on the effects of higher than ambient concentrations of SO2 and NO2 on vegetation under semi-natural conditions: The development and testing of a field fumigation system; process description. First Interim Report to the Commission of the European Communities, EEC Contract ENV-677-NL. January-December 1983. Research Institute for Plant Protection, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Myers, D. A., et al. 1999. Photosynthetic capacity of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees during the first year of carbon dioxide enrichment in a forest ecosystem. Plant, Cell and Environment 22:473-481.
Nagy, J. et al. 1992. FACE facility engineering performance in 1989. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 11:165-185.
Nagy, J., et al. 1994. FACE facility CO2 concentration control and CO2 use in 1990 and 1991. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:31-48.
Nagy, J., et al. 1995. Reliability, CO2 concentration control, and CO2 gas use of the FACE facility at ETH in 1993 and 1994. Report No. 61363. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York.
Nakayama, F. S., et al. 1994. Soil carbon-dioxide fluxes in natural and CO2 -enriched systems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70:131-140.
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