Acronyms and Abbreviations
Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss.
Can't find an acronym you're looking for in our listing? Try the listing, and additional links, maintained by the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office.
A-S Arakawa-Schubert A-SAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar A-SCAT Advanced scatterometer A%C Animal population ratio living in cool climate region AA atomic absorption AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AABW Antarctic Bottom Water AAF Association Aeronautique et Astronautique de France AAG American Association of Geographers AAIW Antarctic Intermediate Water AAOE Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment AARI Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (Russian Federation) AAS atomic absorption spectrometry (spectrometer, spectroscopy) AASE Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition AASP American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists AASSREC Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils AATSR advanced along-track scanning radiometer AAWORD Association of African Women for Research and Development ABE Advisory Board on Energy (India) ABL atmospheric boundary layer ABLE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment ACA Advanced Computer Applications (project) ACABQ Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions ACARS Aircraft Communication and Recording System ACARS ARINC Communications and Reporting System ACAST Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development (UN) ACATS Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species ACC Administrative Coordination Committee (ECOSOC) ACC Air Combat Command (formerly TAC) ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current ACCI Advisory Committee on Climate Applications and Data (WMO) ACCLAIM ACC Levels by Altimetrics and Island Measurements ACCM Atmospheric General Circulation Model ACCP Atlantic Climate Change Programme ACD Aeronautical Charting Division (NOS) ACE-1 Southern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) ACE-2 North Atlantic Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) ACE Advisory Committee on the Environment (ICSU) ACE Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC) ACE Atmospheric Chemistry Education in Global Change (IGAC) ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACH4 Annual methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation ACHEX Aerosol Characterization Experiment ACID Acidification Chemistry Information Data Base (BNL) ACL alternate concentration level ACM advanced climate model ACMAD African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development ACP Atmospheric Chemistry Program (DOE) ACR active cavity radiometer ACRIM active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor ACS American Chemical Society ACSM American Congress of Surveying and Mapping ACSYS Arctic Climate System Study (WCRP) ACTM Atmospheric chemical transport model ACTS African Centre for Technology Studies A.D. anno Domini ADAAC Affiliated Distributed Active Archive Center ADALT Advanced Radar Altimeter ADB Asian Developing Bank ADC Affiliated Data Center ADCLS Advanced Data Collection and Location System ADCP Accoustic Doppler Current Profiler ADDNET Acid Deposition Data Network (EPA) ADEOS Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (Japan) ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing System ADMC Agri-residue dry matter content ADP automatic data processing ADPE automatic data processing equipment AE Atmosphere Explorer AEC U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now DOE) AEDD Arctic Environment Data Directory AEEI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument AEEI Autonomous energy-efficiency index (improvements) AEF Average emission factor AER Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts) AER atmospheric and environmental research (DOE) AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer AERI-FEP AERI Front End Processor AEROCE Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment AES Atmospheric Environment Service (Canada) AEST Australian Eastern Standard Time AET actual evapotranspiration AF Agri-residue used for animal feed AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor AFDM ash free dry mass AFEAS Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study AFGL Air Force Geophysics Laboratory AFGWC Air Force Global Weather Central (U.S.) AFR Africa AFS American Fisheries Society AGA American Gas Association AGAGE Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment AGAL Australian Government Analytical Laboratories AGASP Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Programme AGBD Above ground biomass density AGCM Atmospheric General Circulation Model AGID Association for Geoscientists for International Development AGL above ground level AGU American Geophysical Union Agr. Agriculture (USDA) AGRHYMET Agronmeteorology and Operational Hydrology and Their Applications AGU American Geophysical Union AGWAT Agriculture and Water Project (JECOR) AGWP Absolute Global Warming Potential AH Air Heater AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIBS American Institute of Biological Sciences AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers AICRIP All India Coordinated Programme for Rice Improvement AID Agency for International Development (U.S.) AIDJEX Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association AIJ Activities Implemented Jointly AIM approximate inertial manifold AIM Asian-Pacific Integrated Model AIME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers AIP Algorithm Intercomparison Programme AIP-1 Algorithm Intercomparison Project-1 AIP-2 Algorithm Intercomparison Project-2 AIP-3 Algorithm Intercomparison Project-3 AIREP Aircraft Weather Report AIRS atmospheric infrared sounder AIRS-AMSU Atmospheric Infrared-Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AIRS/MHS Advanced Infrared Radiometer Sounder (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder)/Microwave Humidity Sounder AIS airborne imaging spectrometer AIT Asian Institute of Technology AITP Arctic Ice Thickness Project (WCRP) AJAX 1983 Oceanographic cruise along 0° Meridian into Weddell Sea (U.S., SIO) AL Aeronomy Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (ERL) Al aluminum Al2O3 alumina (aluminum oxide) ALA American Library Association ALACE Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer ALADIN Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ALBIOS Aluminum Biogeochemistry in Soils (EPRI) ALE Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment ALE/GAGE ALE/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment ALEXIS Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors Alf Grimco A-700 processor used for data analysis ALFA AER Local Forecast and Assimilation (Model) ALIAS Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer ALK alkalinity ALOHA A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment ALPEX Alpine Experiment ALS Adirondack Lake Survey (ALSC) ALSC Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation ALSS Aluminum in Streams Study (EPRI) ALT altimeter ALT Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada ALTA Active Long Term Archive AMA African Mountains Association AMAD activity median aerodynamic diameter AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme AMBIACE Amazon Biogeochemistry and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment AMD Developing America AmeDAS Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System AMEX Atlantic Meteorology Experiment AM/FM Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (Society) AMI active microwave instrumentation AMIE Automated Methane Instrument Evaluation AMIGO America's Inter-hemispheric Geobiosphere Organization AMIP Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project AMMS Advanced Multichannel Microwave Sensor AMQUA American Quaternary Association AMRIR advanced medium resolution imaging radiometer AMS accelerator mass spectrometry AMS American Mathematical Society AMS American Meteorological Society AMS Applied Mathematical Sciences (DOE) AMSR advanced microwave scanning radiometer AMSU advanced microwave sounding unit AMSU-A advanced microwave sounding unit-A AMTS advanced moisture and temperature sounder AMU atomic mass unit ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Establishment ANBS Asian Network of Biological Sciences ANC acid-neutralizing capacity ANL Argonne National Laboratory ANFC Annual Natural Forest Cleared ANL/ACRF ANL's Advanced Computing Research Facility Ann annual ANNEX I Countries committed to a quantified CO2 target (OECD, EU, Central and Eastern European countries) ANNEX II OECD countries and EU ANSI American National Standards Institute ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Menai, New South Wales) ANT Antarctica (START) ANTARES Antarctic research (France) (JGOFS) ANTARFIX Antarctic fixed station (France) (JGOFS and WOCE) ANU Australian National University (Canberra, Australia) AO announcement of opportunity AO atmosphere-ocean AOD aerosol optical depth AODC acridine orange direct count AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model AOIPS Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System AOL Airborne Oceanographic Lidar AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Miami, Florida) (ERL) AOSB Arctic Ocean Sciences Board AOSIS Association of Small Island States AOVP Arctic Ocean Variability Project (ACSYS ACSYS) AP Annual Production APA Adirondack Park Agency APA alkaline phosphatase activity APAFO Advanced Particles and Fields Observer APAR absorbed photosynthetically active radiation APARE East Asian-North Pacific Regional Experiment (IGAC) APC Apparent consumption APCA Air Pollution Control Association (Pittsburgh) APDA Arctic Precipitation Data Archive (ACSYS) APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization APHA American Public Health Association API American Petroleum Institute APMP Acid Precipitation Mitigation Program (NAPAP) APN Asia-Pacific Network (for Global Change Research) (START) APSRS Aerial Photo Summary Records System APT automatic picture transmission AQA American Quaternary Association Ar Argon ARA atmospheric radiation analysis ARAC Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (program) ARC Ames Research Center ARC Antarctic Research Center ARC/INFO GIS software ARCS Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station ARCSS Arctic System Science (program) ARDB Arctic Runoff Database (ACSYS) ARGOS Argos Data Collection and Position Location System (CNES and NOAA) ARINC Aeronautical Radio, Inc. ARINC Aeronautical Research, Inc. ARISTOTELES Applications and Research Involving Space Technologies Observing the Earth's Field from a Low Earth Orbiting Satellite ARL Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland (NOAA) ARL Australian Radiation Laboratory (Melbourne, Victoria) ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE program) ARMA Autoregressive moving-average ARMSAT Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Satellite ARPA Advanced Research Project Agency ARRCC Analysis of Rapid and Recent Climate Change (project) ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ARSMC ASEAN Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre ART Arctica (START) ARTEMIS Advanced Relay and Technology Mission Satellite (ESA) ARTEP Ariane Technology Experiment Platform (European) ARW Advanced Research Workshop AS Anti-Spoofing on GPS Transmissions AS Area of Savanna ASA American Statistical Association ASA Antarctic Support Association ASA Atmosphere Spectroscopy Applications ASB Area of Savanna Burned annually ASAP Automated Shipboard Aerological Programme ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASAS Advanced Solid State Array Sensor ASASP Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe ASB Association of Southeastern Biologists ASCAT advanced scatterometer ASCATT advanced scatterometer ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASCEND Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century ASChE American Society of Chemical Engineers ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCOT Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (program) ASCS Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service ASDAR Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay ASE Air Sea Experiment ASEAMS Association of Southeast Asian Marine Scientists ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASF Alaska SAR Facility ASF Atmospheric Stablization Framework ASHOE Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment ASI Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency) ASK Assisted Search for Knowledge ASL above sea level ASL atmospheric surface layer ASLO American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ASM Applied Simulation and Modelling (IASTED) ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASOEN ASEAN Senior Officials on the Environment ASOS Automated Surface Observing System ASPP American Society of Plant Physiologists ASPRS American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ASR aerosol solar radiation ASSAS Advanced Solid State Array Sensor ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (radiometer) ASTER Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (formerly ITIR) ASTEX Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) ASU Air Separation Unit ATES Alcatel Espace Systems ATDD Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (formerly ATDL) (NOAA) ATDL Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (now ATDD) ATF atmospheric transmission factor Atlantis Research vessel (U.S.) ATLAS Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science ATLAS Airborne Turnable Laser Absorption Spectrometer ATLID atmospheric lidar atm atmosphere ATM Atmospheric Transport Model ATMOS Atmospheric Trace Molecules Observed by Spectroscopy ATOVS Advanced TOVS ATP adenosine triphosphate ATPEX ARM Tropical Pacific Experiment ATS Advanced Technology Satellite ATS Antarctic Treaty System ATS applications technology satellite ATS Advanced Turbine Systems ATSR along-track scanning radiometer AURIO Auroral Imaging Observatory AV acoustic velocity (geophysical logging) AVCS Advanced Vidicon Camera System AVD acoustic variable density (geophysical logging) AVHRR advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA) AVHRR GAC AVHRR Global Area Coverage AVHRR LAC AVHRR Local Area Coverage AVIRIS airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer AVISCO French group for Analysis, Validation, and Investigation of Satellite Oceanography AVNIR advanced visible and near-infrared radiometer avtur aviation gas turbine fuel AWDB Adirondack Watershed Data Base AWIPS-90 Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System for the 90s AWRA American Water Resources Association AWIS Association for Women in Science AWWA American Water Works Association (Denver) AXCTD autonomous expendable CTD profiler
b/w black and white B%T Animal population ratio living in temperate climate region BaA benz[a]anthracene BAAS British Association for the Advancement of Science BAHC Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (program) (IGBP) BAHC-SSC BAHC Scientific Steering Committee BALTEX Baltic Sea Experiment BAO Boulder Atmospheric Observatory BaP benzo[a]pyrene BaPDE chemically reactive diolepoxides BAPMoN Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (WMO) BASC Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate, National Research Council (U.S.) BARA Pressure in Atmosphere BASE Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (Canada) BATAN Reactor and Nuclear Research Facilities, National Atomic Energy Agency BATERISTA Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfers and Ecological Research in Situ Studies in Amazonia (BAHC and GEWEX) BATGE Biosphere-Atmosphere Trace Gas Exchange (in the tropics) (IGAC) BATS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series BATS Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (NCAR) BAU business-as-usual b.a.u. business as usual (scenario) BB Biomass Burned BBHIR broadband hemispherical in flux radiometer BBHSR broadband hemispherical solar radiometer BBL benthic boundary layer bbl barrels (of oil) BBSR Bermuda Biological Station for Research BBSRC Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council BBSS balloon-borne sounding system BBZ benthic boundary zone BC black carbon BCC British Coal Corporation (U.K.) BCD Binary Coded Decimal BCF bioconcentration factor BEMS Bioelectromagnetics Society BEST Bilan Energetique du Systeme Tropical Bet Grimco A-700 processor used for data collection BF Biomass quantity burned in fields BGC biogeochemical cycle BGL British Gas Lurgi (gasifier) BHD designation of an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (DOI) BIBEX Biomass Burning Experiment (IGAC) BiE Business in the Environment BIGSTIG biomass integrated gasifier steam-injected gas turbine BIG-TT BAHC-IGAC-GCTE Task Team BIH Bureau International de l'Heure BIOME global biome model BIOMOVS Biospheric Model Validation Study BIOSYNOP Biological Synoptic Ocean Prediction BIOTRANS biological transformations (site at 47°N 20°W) BIOTROP Regional Center for Tropical Biology BIPM Bureau International de Poids et Mesures BLM Bureau of Land Management (DOI) BLS "Basic Linked System" scenario BMAP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program BMC Baltic Marine Cooperation BMFT Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (Germany) BMG Meteorological and Geophysics Agency BMRC Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia) BMWT Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology (Division) (DOE) BNA Block Numbering Area BNAP Basic Hydrological Network Assessment Project BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory BNSC British National Space Centre BO CH4 producing potential BOB Bureau of the Budget BOC Bureau of Census (DOC) BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand BODC British Oceanographic Data Centre (Bidston) BOF basic oxygen furnace BOFS Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (U.K.) BOM benthic organic matter BoM Bureau of Meteorology (DASET) BOR Bureau of Reclamation (DOI) BOREAS Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BAHC and GEWEX) BORIS BOREAS Information System BP before present BPA Bonneville Power Administration BPKM billion passenger kilo metre BPPT Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (Indonesia) Bq Becquerel (symbol) (SI unit of activity of ionizing radiation source) BRDF bidirectional reflectance distribution function BrO bromine monoxide BRW Barrow Observatory (Barrow, Alaska) (CMDL) Bs Natural forest biomass burned onsite BSIP Birban Sahani Institute of Paleobotany BSRN Baseline Surface Radiation Network BTCs breakthrough curves (column-elution tests) Btu British thermal unit BUFR Binary Universal Form for the Representation (of data) BuREC Bureau of Reclamation (now WPR) BUV Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer BVE Barotropic vorticity equation BW bulk water BWTP Basalt Waste Isolation Project
13C carbon-13 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 13) 14C carbon-14 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 14) C carbon C Celsius, centigrade C/A Coarse/Acquisition GPS signal structure C&W Animal population ratio living in warm climate region C-MACCS Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation C3AT Ch3 Albedo Test (AVHRR) ca. circa CAA Central Arid Asia (START) CAA Clean Air Act (1970) CAAP Composition and Acidity of Southeast Asian Precipitation CAC Climate Analysis Centre (now CPC) (WMO) CAC Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry CACGP Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS) CAD computer-aided design/ drafting/drawing CADD computer-aided design and drafting CAeM Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology (WMO) CAF Clean Air Facility CAgM Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (WMO) Cal/Val calibration/validation CALCOFI California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation CAM crassulacean acid metabolism CAMS Control and Monitoring System CAO cold air outbreak CAP Central Arizona Project (USBR) CAPPI Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator CAR Caribbean (START) CARBICE Carbon Dioxide Intercalibration Experiment (IGAC) CARDS climatological aerological reference data set CARS Climate Applications Referral System CARS coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering CART Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM) CAS Chemical Abstract Series CAS Chinese Academy of Science CAS Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (WMO) CASA Inter-Union Commission on the Application of Science to Agriculture, Forestry, and Aquaculture (ICSU) CASSAD Centre for African Settlement Studies and Development CAST Chinese Academy of Science and Technology CAT computerized axial tomography CBA cost benefit analysis CBO Congressional Budget Office (U.S.) CBS Commission for Basic Systems (WMO) CC Combined Cycle CCAM Chikuko Cha Amayi M'Malawi (Women's NGO) CCAQ Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions CCC Canadian Climate Centre CCCN CDIAC Computing System Network CCCO Committee on Climate Changes and the Ocean (SCOR and IOC) CCCP California Institute of Technology Concurrent Computation Project CCD charge-coupled device (camera) CCDB Carbon content of dead biomass CCDP Climate Change Detection Project CCGT Combined Cycle Gas Turbine CCI Commission for Climatology (WMO) CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee (ITU) CCITT International Consultative Committee on Telegraphs and Telecommunications (ITU) CCIW Canadian Centre for Inland Waters CCL Central CO2 Laboratory, SIO (WMO) CCLB Carbon content of living biomass CCM1 community climate model one CCM2 community climate model two (NCAR) CCM community climate model CCM0 Community Climate Model (NCAR) CCM2 Community Climate Model (version 2) CCMS Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society CCN cloud condensation nuclei CCOP Committee for the Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (Indonesia) CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CCSDS Consultative Committee for Standard Data Services CCT computer-compatible tape CD Chemistry Division CD community development CD compact disc CDAS Climate Data Assimilation System CDC Control Data Corporation CDCR conceptual design and cost review CDDIS Crustal Dynamics Data Information System CDF common data format CDIAC Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (formerly CDIC) (ORNL/DOE) CDIC Carbon Dioxide Information Center (now CDIAC) CDMS Cryospheric Data Management System CDNC Cloud drop number concentration CDOS Customer Data and Operations System CDP Crustal Dynamics Project (NASA) CDRD Carbon Dioxide Research Division CD-ROM compact disc-read only memory CDRP Carbon Dioxide Research Program CDW Circumpolar Deep Water CE Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy CE Combusion Efficiency CEA cause-and-effect analysis CEA Central Electricity Authority (India) CEA Council of Economic Advisors CEA Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France) CEAREX Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment CEC cation exchange capacity CEC Commission of European Communities CEDAR Coupled Energetics and Dynamics of the Atmospheric Regions CEDDA Center for Experiment Design and Data Analysis (NOAA) CEEM Center for Energy and Environmental Management CEES Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (formerly CES; replaced by CENR) CEI Center for Environmental Information CEM cumulus ensemble model CEMA Council of Mutual Economic Aid (Russian Federation, formerly U.S.S.R.) CEN European Committee for Standardization (EC) CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (EC) CENR Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (U.S. NCST) CENTO Central Treaty Organization CEOS Committee on Earth Observation Satellites CEP circular error probability CEP Comite Ecumenico de Proyectos CEPAL Comision Economica para America Latina (Spain) (ECLA) CEPAL Economic Commission for Latin America (Spain) (ECLA) CEPEX Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment CEPT Conference Europeenne des Administration des Postes et Telecommunications (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) CEQ Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.) CER carbon dioxide exchange rate CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980) (Superfund) CERES Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (EOS) CERES Crop Environment Resource Synthesis CERGA Centre d'Etudes et de Rechereches Geodynamiques et Astronomiques CERL Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA) CERN Chinese Ecological Research Network CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CERP Cooperative Ecological Research Project (PRC, Germany, and UNESCO) CERSAT French group for processing ERTS-1 low bit rate data from ocean areas CES Committee on Earth Sciences (now CEES) CETA Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment CETA Comprehensive Education and Training Administration CF concentration factor CF Carbon Fraction CFAGB Carbon fraction of above ground biomass CFC chlorofluorocarbon CFC chlorinated fluorocarbon CFC-11 CC13F, trichlorofluoromethane, Freon-11 CFC-12 CCl2F2, dichlorodifluoromethane, Freon-12 CFC-113 CCl2FCClF2, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane CFEM combined fates and effects model CFF Carbon fraction of fuel CFM Chlorofluoromethane CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFRI Central Fuel Research Institute (India) CGBAPS Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station CGC Committee on Global Change CGC Management and Coordination Advisory Committee CGCM coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model CGCP Canadian Global Change Program CGED Committee on Geophysical Environmental Data (NAS) CGES Center for Global Environmental Studies CGMS Coordination of Geostationary Meteorological Satellites CGMW Commission for the Geological Map of the World CGO Cape Grim (Tasmania) (baseline station) CH4 methane CH4-C Methane-carbon ratio CH3CL methyl chloride CH3CCl3 methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane) CHAMMP Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (Climate Modeling Program)CHEMRAWN Chemical Research Applied to World Needs (IUPAC) CHP Combined Heat and Power CHRIS Chemical Hazard Response Information System CH.SS Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) CHy Commission for Hydrology (WMO) CI Conservation International (Washington, D.C.) (NGO) CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAP Climate Impact Assessment Program CIAP Inter-American Committee for the Alliance for Progress CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CIE Chinese Institute of Electronics CIEA Committee on International Environmental Activities CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (U.S.) CIG Commonwealth Industrial Gases (U.K.) CIHEAM Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Mediterraneenes CIL Coal India Limited CILSS Comite Inter-Etats pour la Lutte Contre la Secheresse au Sahel (CH.SS) (consists of Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta, and Cape Verde Islands) CIMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (WMO) CIMSS Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies CINOF Campaign for Integrated Observations of Solar Flares CIR color-infrared (film) CIRAC Canadian Institute for Research in Atmospheric Chemistry CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (University of Colorado, Boulder) CIRT cirrus test CIS CDIAC Information System CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISPR International Special Committee on Radio Interference CISTI Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information CIT California Institute of Technology CITE Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation CIUS Conseil International des Unions Scientifiqes (ICSU) CKE cumulus kinetic energy CLAES cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer CLARET Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test CLASS Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System CLAVR Clouds from AVHRR CLI Climate Change (project) CLIC Climate Inventory and Catalog CLICOM climate computing CLIMAP Climate Long-Range Investigation Mapping and Prediction (project) CLIMAP Climate Applications Project (WMO) CLIVAR Climate Variability and Predictability (WCRP) ClNO3 chlorine nitrate ClO chlorine monoxide ClO2 chlorine dioxide ClONO2 chlorine nitrate ClNO3 chlorine nitrate CLP Contract Laboratory Program (EPA) CLRI Central Leather Research Institute (India) CLS Collected Localization Satellites (France) cm centimeter cm3 cubic centimeter (milliliter) CMA Cement Manufacturers' Association (U.S.) CMAP Climate Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (program) CMC Canadian Meteorological Centre CMD Coordinator for Multi-lateral Development Program CMDL Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (NOAA and ERL) CME Community Modelling Effort (U.K.) CMIE Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy CMM Commission for Marine Meteorology (WMO) CMP Climate Modelling Programme CMP computer modeling package CMRS Coal Mines Research Station CMS Configuration Management System CN condensation nuclei CNC condensation nucleus counter CNES Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales (French Space Agency) CNET Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (France) CNG compressed natural gas CNR Committee on Natural Resources CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy) CNRET Centre for Natural Resources Energy and Transport (UN) CNRS National Scientific Research Center (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique) (France) CO carbon monoxide CO-C Carbon monoxide carbon trace gas emission CO2 carbon dioxide COADS Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA and WCRP) COBIOTECH Scientific Committee for Biotechnology (ICSU) CODATA Committee on Data for Science and Technology (ICSU) CODMAC Committee on Data Management, Archiving, and Computation COE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers COGEOMAP Federal-State Cooperative Geologic Mapping COHMAP Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project Co-I co-investigator COLA Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies COM Communication Department CONA Committee for OWSE-North America CoP Conference of the Parties to the FCCC COPS continuously operating per fluorocarbon sniffer COPUOS Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN) Corp. Corporation (spell out in text; abbreviate in references, lists tables, footnotes, bibliographies, and indexes) COS Carbonyl sulfide CoSAMC Commission for Special Applications of Meteorology and Climatology (WMO) COSPAR Committee on Space Research (ICSU) COST Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN) COSTED Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (ICSU) COW Committee on Water COWAR Committee on Water Research (ICSU and UATI) COWRR Committee on Water Resources Research CPA Centrally Planned Asia CPC Climate Prediction Center (formerly CAC) CPE Eastern Europe (also called Centrally Planned Europe) CPEs Centrally-planned economies CPM critical path method CPMS climatological prediction by model statistics CPO Core Project Office (IGBP) CPP cloud photopolarimeter CPPC Core Project Planning Committee (IGBP) CPRS cloud-profiling radar system CPS certified professional secretary CPU central processing unit CPUE catch per unit effort CRC Climate Research Committee CRC cyclic redundancy check CRD Carbon released from dead biomass CRE Coal Research Establishment of BCC (U.K.) CRE Centro Ricerche Energia, Italy (ENEA) CREN Chemical Research and Environmental Needs CREO Cryosphere Research on Qingzang Plateau CRESP Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (NEA) CRF cloud radiative forcing CRI Climate Research Institute (Oklahoma State University) CRIC Computerized River Information System (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) CRL Carbon released from living biomass CRM certified reference material CRP Climate Research Program CRPE Centre de Recherches en Physique de l'Environment Terrestre et Planetaria CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (COE) CRS cavity-ringdown spectrometer CRT cathode-ray tube CRU Climatic Research Unit (UEA, Norwich, U.K.) CRYSYS Cryospheric System CS Computer Services Department CS Carbon stored CSA Canadian Space Agency CSA Chinese Society of Astronautics CSATA Centra Studi e Applicazioni in Tecnologie Avanzate (Italy) CSD Commission on Sustainable Development CSEC Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (University of Lancaster) CSELI Centra Studi e Laboratori Telecommunicazioni (Italy) CSERGE Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (UEA and University College, London) CSES Center for the Study of Earth from Space (University of Colorado, Boulder) CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India) CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa) CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIRO/DAR CSIRO/Division of Atmospheric Research (Australia) CSM climate system monitoring CSMP Climate System Modeling Program CSO Central Statistical Organization CSPP Collaborative Special Project and Programme CSR Centra de Sensores Remotes (Italy) CSRS Cooperative State Research Service CST CHAMMP Science Team CSTR Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (BASC) CSU Colorado State University (Fort Collins) CTD Chemical Technology Division (ORNL) CTD conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (instrument) CTD continuous-temperature-depth CTM Chemistry/Transport Models CTS Committee on the Teaching of Science CTSS Cray time-sharing system CU University of Colorado CUF capacity utilization factor cv Calorific Value C.V. coefficient of variation (math) CVS Conference and Visitors' Services CW continuous wave CW "Conventional Wisdom" scenario, World Bank, 1990 CWA Clean Water Act (1977) CWR continuous-wave radar CWSF Chemical Waste Storage Facility CY calendar year CZCS coastal zone color scanner CZM Coastal Zone Management CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act (1972)
D/H deuterium/hydrogen (ratio) 1-D one-dimensional 2-D two-dimensional 3-D three-dimensional 4-D four-dimensional 4DDA four-dimensional (4D) data assimilation 1-D RCM one-dimensional radiative-convective model 2-D RCAM two-dimensional radiative-advective-convective equilibrium model D Deuterium (also abbreviated as 2D or 2H) DAAC Data Active Archive Center DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center DAC Data Assembly Centre (WOCE) DADS Data Archive and Distribution System DAEDALUS Documenting Aerosol Electromagnetics, Defining Aerosol Lifetimes, and Understanding Sources (Research Stations) DAR Division of Atmospheric Research (CSIRO) (Aspendale, Victoria, Australia) DARA Deutsche Agentur fur Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (Germany) DARE data rescue DARPA U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DAS data-assimilation system DAS data acquisition system DAS direct access system DASA Deutsche Aerospace Administration DASET Department of the Arts, Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories (formerly DASETT) DASETT Department of the Arts, Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories (now DASET) DAT Department of Science and Technology DB direct-beam (irradiance) DB direct broadcast DBE Deep Basin Experiment dbh diameter at breast height DBMS data base management systems (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) DBS Doppler beam swinging DC United States Department of Commerce DC developing country DC Dairy cattle D.C. District of Columbia DCAR Danish Centre for Atmospheric Research DCDS Digital Cartographic Data Standard DCDSTF Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force (Composed of members of the NCDCDS and FICCDC/SWG) DCF Discounted Cash Flow DCP data collection platform DCP-OES direct coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy DCS data collection system DCT dedicated carbon tax DD degree day DDF descriptive data file DDL direct downlink DDMP domain-decomposition-message-passing DDRP Direct/Delayed Response Project DDT dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (insecticide) DE dynamics explorer DE Decay DE08 designation for an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica DEBITS Deposition of Biogeochemically Important Trace Species (IGAC) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation DECNet Digital Equipment Corporation Network Dehydrite magnesium perchlorate anhydrous granular dE/dt rate of evaporation (moisture loss from soil) DEIS Draft Environmental Impact Statement DEM digital elevation model DEMR Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources (Canada) DEW distant early warning DGCM Dynamic Global Vegetation Model DGLR Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) DGVM Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (GAIM) DH chromosome-doubled haploid DHCN Daily Historical Climate Network DHHS United States Department of Health and Human Services DHS Department of Human Services DI Directorate DIA Denmark's Academy for Engineering DIAL Differential Absorption Lidar DIC dissolved inorganic carbon DICE Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy DIDAC digital data acquisition system DIF Data Interchange Format DIS Data and Information Systems (EOS and IGBP) Discovery Research vessel (U.K.) DISORT discrete ordinate (model) DIS-SC DIS Standing Committee DISSPLA Display Integrated Software System and Plotting Language DIU Data Information Unit DIW Department of Industrial Works DKD Deutscher Kalibrierdienst DLG digital line graph DLG-E digital line graph-enhanced DLR Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany) DLS dynamic limb sounder DM Data Management (WMO and WWW) DM deep monitoring (wells)DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.) DMA direct memory access (computer term) DMDS dimethyl disulfide DM-MIMD distributed memory, multiple instruction, multiple data (computer) DMS data management system DMS dimethyl sulfide or dimethylsulphide DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (U.S.) DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DND Department of National Defense (Canada) DNES Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (India) DOA United States Department of Agriculture DOAI Department of Agriculture, Indonesia DOAS differential optical absorption spectroscopy DOC dissolved organic carbon DOC United States Department of Commerce DOD United States Department of Defense DOD Deutsches Ozeanographisches Datenzentrum (Germany) DOE Department of the Environment (Canada) DOE United States Department of Energy DOI United States Department of Interior DOJ United States Department of Justice DOL United States Department of Labor DOLY Dynamic Global Phytogeography Model (GCTE) DOM dissolved organic macromolecules DOM dissolved organic matter DOMSAT Domestic Communications Satellite DOMSTAR communications relay set DOPLID Doppler lidar DORIS Determination d'Orbite et Radio Positionement Integre par Satellite (France) DORIS Doppler Orbit and Radio Positioning Integration by Satellite DOS Department of Space DOS United States Department of State DOST Department of Science and Technology DOT United States Department of Transportation DOY day of year DP direct playback DPC display code (CDC) DPC Domestic Policy Council DPR development planning review (D)PR dual precipitation radar DPS Digital Photogrammetry System DQO Data Quality Objectives DRAW Direct Read After Write Animation System DRS Data Relay Satellite DRSS Data Relay Satellite System DSB direct sounding broadcast DSDP deep sea drilling project DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (now SRC) (U.K.) DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) DSM demand-side management DSN Deep Space Network DSP digital signal processing DSRT Deep Sea Reversing Thermometer DSS Data Support Section (NCAR) DST data system tests DST Department of Science and Technology DTD digital terrain data DTH Technical University of Denmark DTR Diurnal temperature range DU Dobson units DUNDEE Down Under Doppler and Electricity Experiment DWBM Office of Defense Waste Byproducts Management DWS Doppler wind sensor DYFAMED atmospheric dynamics and fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea (France) (JGOFS) DYN Dynamic Systems Project
E/GDP Ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product E/GNP Ratio of energy consumption to gross national product EADS Environmental Assessment Data System EARSeL European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories EAS Environmental Analyses Section (ORNL) EAs Environmental Assessments EASIZ Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone EASOE European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment EAWEP East Asia and Western Pacific EAZO Energy Active Zones of the Ocean EBBR Energy-Balance Bowen Ratio EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Data Interchange Code (IBM) EBM energy-balance model EC eddy correlation EC electron capture EC elemental carbon EC Environment Canada EC European Community EC European Communities or Commission of the European Communities EC executive committee EC Executive Council (WMO) ECA Economic Commission for Africa (UN) ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East ECAMP Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (USAF) ECC electrochemical concentration cell ECD effective cutoff diameter ECD electron capture detector (GC) ECDIS Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems ECE Economic Commission for Europe (UN) ECG Ecosystem Conservation Group (UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, and IUCN) EC-GC electron capture-gas chromatograph ECHAM European Centre/Hamburg Model (ECMWF/MPI) ECHIVAL European International Project on Climate and Hydrological Interactions between Vegetation, Atmosphere, and Land Surfaces (BAHC and EPOCH) ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN) ECLIPS Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (U.K.) Ecom. EOS communications ECN Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN Environmental Change Network ECOMARGE ecology of the continental margins (France) (JGOFS) ECOSOC Economic and Social Council (UN) ECOWARM European Committee for Water Resources Management (IAHS) ECS Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (project) ECS EOSDIS Core System ECSL European Centre for Space Law ECTF Edinburgh Centre for Tropical Forests ECU Environmental Change Unit (Oxford) ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia ED Energy Division EDA elevation difference accuracy EDAS particulate/radon data system EDC EROS Data Center EDD Exchange of Digital Data EDI electronic Data Interchange EDI Equivalent-damage index EDIS Environmental Data and Information Service EDOS EOS Data and Operations System EDP electronic data processing EDS Environmental Data Service EDSG Energy Demand Steering Group EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetate EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic (acid) EDX energy-dispersive X-ray (analysis) EDXS energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EEC European Economic Communities EEC European Economic Commission EEFSU Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union EEI Edison Electric Institute EEP east equatorial Pacific EER external engineering review EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EF Emission Factor EFCC Externally Fired Combined Cycle EFEDTA European Field Experiment in Decertification Threatened Area (ECHIVAL and BAHC) EFQ Estimated fuel quantity consumed (Used to determine carbon stored) e.g. exempli gratia (for example) use only in parentheses or footnotes, followed by a comma) EGCM Eddy-resolving General Circulation Model EGE Enhanced Greenhouse Effect EG&G Edgerton, Germeshauser, and Greer EGS European Geophysical Society EIA Energy Information Administration (DOE) EIPO European IGAC Project Office Steering Committee EIS environmental impact statement EISCAT European Incoherent Scatter Facility EISMV Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences et de Medecine Veterinaire (Dakar) EJ exajoule (1018 joules) E-LIDAR experimental lidar ELS Eastern Lake Survey ELV expendable launch vehicle EM electromagnetic EMAP Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program EMEP Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe EMEP-CCC EMEP-Chemical Coordination Centre EMEX Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment EMF Energy Modelling Forum EML Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE) EMOC EOSDIS Mission Operations Center EMR electromagnetic radiation EMSL Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EPA) EMSL-LV Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (Nevada) (EPA) En Natural forest biomass used for energy ENEA Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy) ENEA Italian National Agency for New technology, Energy and the Environment ENRIC Environment and Natural Resources Information Center ENRICH European Network for Research on Global Change (CEC) ENSO El Nino/Southern Oscillation (coupled oceanic-atmospheric change) ENVISAT environmental satellite EOC Earth Observation Center (NASDA) EOC EOS Operations Center (NASA) EOCAP Earth Observation Commercialization Application Program EODC Earth Observing Data Center (U.K.) EOF empirical orthogonal function EO-ICWG Earth Observations International Coordination Working Group EOPM electro-optic phase modulation EORCU European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit EOS Earth Observing System (U.S.) EOS-AERO EOS Aerosol Mission EOS-ALT EOS Altimetry Mission EOS-AM EOS Morning Crossing (ascending) Mission or Earth Observing System (morning pass) EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite (commercial operator for satellite systems in the U.S.) EOS-CHEM EOS Chemistry Mission EOSC Earth Observations Science Committee (of ESA) EOSDIS EOS Data and Information System EOSP Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter EOS PM Earth Observing System (afternoon pass) or EOS Afternoon Crossing (descending) Mission EOTC European Organization for Testing and Certification (EC) EP Earth Probe EP extraction procedure (RCRA and EPA) EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) EPA Environmental Protection Authority (Victoria, Australia) EPC Environmental Protection Committee (Bahrain) EPD European Pollen Database EPER Environmental Processes and Effects Research (program) EPI environmental productivity index EPICA European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (PAGES) EPO EOS Project Office EPOCH European Programme on Climate and Hazards (EEC) EPOP European Polar-Orbiting Platform EPOPE Etude de Processes dans l'Ocean Pacifique Equatorial EPRI Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, California) EPSRC Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council EQPAC Equatorial Pacific (JGOFS) ER Office of Energy Research ER-2 Extended Range U-2 (aircraft) ERB Earth Radiation Budget ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ERBES Earth Radiation Budget Explorer Satellite ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite ERD Ecological Research Division (DOE and OHER) ERDA U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly AEC; now DOE) ERDAS Earth Resources Data Analysis Systems ERFEN Estudio Regional del Fenomeno El Nino ERFU Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade Program ERIM Environmental Research Institute of Michigan ERL Environmental Research Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (NOAA) ERNets Energy Research Networks ERNI wet-only rainfall collector EROC Ecological Rates of Change (NSF) EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite EROS Earth Resources Observation System EROS European River Ocean System (EEC) ERP Environmental Research Parks ERS Economic Research Service ERS Earth Resources (or remote sensing) Satellite ERS ESA Remote Sensing Satellite ERS European Remote-Sensing Satellite ERS-1 European Remote-Sensing Satellite-1 ERS-2 European Remote-Sensing Satellite-2 ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite (now Landsat) ERTS-1 Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 ESA Ecological Society of America ESA Endangered Species Act (1973) ESA Entomological Society of America ESA Equatorial South America (START) ESA European Space Agency ESA/IRS European Space Agency/Information Retrieval Service ESAD Earth Science and Applications Division (NASA HQ) ESAER European Space Agency's Earth Resources (Satellite) ESAM Institute for Environmental Science and Management ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN) ESD Environmental Sciences Division (ORNL) ESDIS Earth Science Data and Information System ESF European Science Foundation ESF/EPC ESF/European Palaeoclimate and Man Project (holocene climate) ESMAP Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme ESMR electronically (electrically) scanning microwave radiometer ESOC European Space Operations Center ESRC Environmental Science Research Center ESRC Economic and Social Research Council ESRI Environmental Systems Research Institute ESSA U.S. Environmental Science Services Agency (forerunner of NOAA) ESSC Earth System Sciences Committee ESTAR electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ARM) ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre ESTEC European Space Technology Centre (Netherlands) ET evapotranpiration ETA estimated time of arrival ETAC Environmental Technical Applications Center (U.S. Air Force) ETAP Expanded Technical Assistance Program ETC Energy Technology Center ETC European Telecommunications Standards Institute (EC) etc. and others especially of the same kind; and so forth ETF Engineered Test Facility ETF Environmental Task Force ETI Economic Transition and Integration (project) ETM enhanced thematic mapper (Landsat) ETRP Education and Training Programme (WMO) ETSA electron transport system activity ETV electrothermal vaporizer EU Agri-residue utilized for energy supply EU European Union EUMELI eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic sites (France) (JGOFS) EUMETSAT European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites EUR Bureau of European Affairs EURECA European Retrievable Carrier EUROSTART European Planning Committee for START EUROTRAC European Experiment on Transport and Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents (in the Troposphere over Europe) EUV extreme ultraviolet EVA extra vehicular activity EXCOMM Executive Committee EZE Asociacion Protestante de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo en Alemania
%FCO Fraction of carbon oxidized f Fraction FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) FAB Finance and Budget FAB Fraction actually burned FABF Fraction of agri-residue burned in fields FACE free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (GCTE) FAD Fraction actually degrades FAGS Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (ICSU) FAI Fertilizer Association of India FANGIO Feedback Analysis for GCM Intercomparison and Observations FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (UN) (ICSU) FAP Food and Agriculture Project FAPIS Formation en Amenagement Pastoral Integre au Sahel FAQ Frequently Asked Question FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations FARS Facility for Atmospheric Remove Sensing FASINEX Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment FAST Fourier amplitude-sensitivity test FATE Formation of Aerosol and their Transformation over Europe (EUROTRAC) FB Fraction burned annually FBS Frontal Boundary Study FBC Fluidized Bed Combustor FC Fuel Consumption FCC Federal Communications Commission FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change FCCSET Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (now NSTC) FCDS Fleet Consolidated Data Set (U.S. Navy) FCST Federal Council for Science and Technology FD Fraction that is dead FDA facility disposal area FDH Fixed Dynamical Heating FDI field data investor FDM finite difference method FDOC Fraction of degradable organic carbon FE Fossil Energy Program (DOE) Fe iron FEA Far East FEDC Fusion Energy Design Center FEDMAP Federal Geologic Mapping Project FEIS final environmental impact statement FeLINE Iron as a Limiting-Nutrient Experiment (CSIRO) FEM finite element method FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) FEMA Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FEWA Finite Element of Water Flow through Aquifers FF free format FFES Fossil Free Energy System FFO Fraction of oxidized FFT fast Fourier transformation FGCC Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S. National Ocean Service) FGD Flue Gas Desulphurisation FGDC Federal Geographic Data Commission FGEF Federal Geographic Exchange Format FGGE First GARP Global Experiment (WMO) FGGE SOP FGGE Special Observing Period FICCDC Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (USGS) FICCDC/SWG FICCDC/Standards Working Group (U.S.) FID flame ionization detector (GC) FIELD Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development FIFE First ISLSCP Field Experiment FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act FIN Fish Information Network (data base) FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard FIRE First ISCCP Regional Experiment FIREIFO First ISCCP Regional Experiment FIRESCAN Fire Research Campaign Asia-North FIT Field Investigation Team (EPA) FIZ Fachinformationszentrum FL Fraction that live FLAIR Measurement of Micronutrient Absorption and Status FLINN Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Sciences Network FLM federal land manager (e.g., National Park Service) FLUPAC flux dans l'ouest du Pacifique equatorial (France) (JGOFS) FMFR four-minus-five restoral FMFT four-minus-five test FNOC Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (U.S. Navy) FNWC Fleet Numerical Weather Center (U.S. Navy) FO furnace oil FOAM Fates of Aromatic Model FOLD federally owned Landsat data FOR Forestry Resources (project) FORAST Forest Response to Anthropogenic Stress (model) FORET Forest of East Tennessee (model) FORTE fast on-orbit recording of transient events FORTRAN FORmula TRANslation (a computer language) FOT flight operations team FOT Fourier Optical Transform FOV field-of-view (of vision) FPD flame photometric detector FR Federal Register (use with numbers in text; use "Fed. Regis." in reference lists) Fr Quantity of biomass cleared annually from natural forests Fr Fraction of liquid waste treated anaerobically (In methane emissions from municipal liquid waste) FRAM Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (U.K.) FRG Federal Republic of Germany (now Germany) FRI Forest Research Institute FRLAB Front Range Lidar, Aircraft, and Balloon (experiment) FRONTAL frontal process studies (France) (JGOFS) FRR fast repetition rate FRRPA Forest and Rangeland Renewable Planning Act (1974) FS Forest Service (USDA) FSI Forest Survey of India FSL Forecast Systems Laboratory (ERL and NOAA) FSSP forward scattering spectrometer probe FST field support terminal FSU Florida State University (Tallahasee) FT Free troposphere FTIR Fourier transform infrared FTIR Fourier transform infrared radiometer (spectroscopy) FTP file transfer protocol FTP/A field task proposal/agreement FTS Fournier transform spectrometer FTS full turbulence simulation FTS file transfer system FTU Formazin turbidity unit FUA Fuel Use Act FW filter wheel FWCA Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1958) FWM food web model FWP Field Work Proposal FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972) FWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service FWWTA Fraction of waste water treated anaerobically FY fiscal year
G-1 Gulfstream-1 (airplane) G-7 Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States g gram GA geographic analysis GAC global area coverage GAGE Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment GAIM Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (IGBP) GH Gas Heater GALE Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment GAME GEWEX-related Asian Monsoon Experiment GAMETAG Global Atmospheric Measurements Experiment of Tropospheric Aerosols and Gases GARP Global Atmospheric Research Program (WMO, ICSU, and NOAA) GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment GATE Global Atmosphere Tropical Experiment GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO) GBF/DIME Geographic Base Files/Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Census Bureau) Gbps gigabits per second GBSRN Global Baseline Surface Radiation Network GC gas chromatography (chromatograph) GCC global change category GCCD Global Climate Change Digest (CEI) GCDB Geographic Coordinates Data Base GCDIS Global Change Data and Information System GCEP Global Change Education Program GCHC Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center (USGS) GCIP GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project GCM General (global) Circulation Model GCM Global Climate Model GC/MS gas chromatography/mass spectrometry GCO Generation Certification Official (waste generation) GCOS Global Climate Observing System (WMO, IOC, UNEP, and ICSU) GCP Ground Control Point GCPI Cape Grim Photochemical Intensive (CSIRO) GCRIO Global Change Research Information Office GCRP Global Change Research Program GCSS GEWEX Cloud System Study GCSS Global Cloud Systems Study GCTE Global Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems (program) (IGBP) GCTE-SSC GCTE Scientific Steering Committee GCTM Global Chemical Transport Model GCV gross calorific value GDAAC Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center GDAS Grimco data acquisition system GDC Global Data Centre GDP gross domestic product GDPS Global Data-Processing System (WMO and WWW) GDSIDB Global Digital Sea-Ice Data Bank (WMO/CMM) GDR Geophysical Data Record GDR German Democratic Republic (now Germany) GE General Electric GEBA Global Energy Balance Archive GEC global environment change GEDEX Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment GEF Global Environment Facility (WB, UNDP, and UNEP) GEF Global Environmental Fund GEIA Global Emissions Inventory Activity (IGAC) GEISA Gestion et d'Etude des Information Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques GEM Geospace Environment Modeling GEM-HEX Geochemical, Microbiological, and Hydrological Experiment GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP) GENESIS Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems GENIE Global Environmental Network for Information Exchange GENLEAF generic models of leaf response GEO Geostationary Earth Observation GEOM geographically detailed model GEOS Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite Geos-3 Geodetic Satellite Mission (NASA) Geosat Geologic Satellite (program) (USN) Geosat Geodesy satellite (USN) GEOSECS Geochemical Ocean Sections Study GER Global Environmental Research (U.K.) GERG Global Environment Research Group GESAMP Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (WCRP) GF3 General Format No. 3 GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA) GFDL Goddard Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GFLOPS one gigaflop equals 1 billion (109) floating point operations per second (measure of computer processing capability) GFO Geosat follow-on GGI GPS geoscience instrument GGI greenhouse-gas indices GGS global geospace science GHCN Global Historical Climatology Network GHG greenhouse gas(es) GHz gigahertz GIF Graphical Interchange Format GIM Global Integration and Modeling (IGAC) GIMMS Global Inventory Modeling and Monitoring Study GIS geographic information system (a system for management, manipulation, analysis, and display of spatial data) GISMO graphic-information-system modeling GISP Greenland Ice Sheet Project (NSF and PAGES) GISP2 Greenland Ice Sheet Project GISP II Second Greenland Ice Sheet Project (U.S.) GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA) GIT gastrointestinal tract GIT Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta) GJ giga (109) joule GL Geophysics Laboratory GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (formerly GLRS-A) GLAS Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences GLBC Great Lakes Basin Commission GLI global imager GLIS Global Land Information System GLL Galileo GLOBE Global Land One kilometer Base Elevation (DIS) GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment GLOBEC Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SCOR) GLOBEC Global Marine Ecosystem Dynamics (program) GLOCARB Global Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide Network (IGAC) GLOCHANT Global Change Research in the Antarctic (SCAR) GLOCHEM Global Atmospheric Chemical Survey (IGAC) GloED Global Emissions Database GLONET Global Tropospheric Ozone Network (IGAC) GLOSS Global Sea-Level Observing System (IOC) GLRC Great Lakes Research Center (LSC and NOAA) GLRD Great Lakes Research Division GLRS Geoscience Laser Ranging System GLRS-A Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Altimeter (now GLAS) GLRS-R Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Ranger GMCC Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (now CMDL) GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (IMO) GMP genetically modified plants GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (Japan) GMSC Geologic Map Standards Committee (USGS) GMT Greenwich Mean Time GNIS Geographic Names Information System (USGS) GNP Gross National Product GNO Gross Product Originating GO3OS Global Ozone Observing System (WMO) GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (program) GOED Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite GOES Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics GOES Global Omnibus Environmental Survey (HDGEC) GOEZS Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (IGBP, SCOR, and WCRP) GOF Global Ocean Flux GOFS Global Ocean Flux Study GOI government of India GOIN Global Observation Information Network GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMI Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument GOMOS Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars GOMR global ozone monitoring radiometer GONG Global Oscillation Network Group GOOS Global Ocean Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU) GOOS Global Ozone Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU) GOP Geographical Observatories Programme GOS Global Observing System (WMO and WWW) GOS 	:Geomagnetic Observing System GPC Global Processing Center GPCC Global Precipitation Climatology Center (data base) GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPI GOES Precipitation Index GPO Government Printing Office (U.S.) GPS Global Positioning System GPSDR Global Positioning System Demonstration Receiver GR growth rate GRADO CNES Gravity Satellite (France) GRASS Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) GRDC Global Runoff Data Centre GRECA Group of Experts on Accident Consequences (NEA and OECD) GREENS Global Redevelopment with Energy Environment Sustainability GREENTIE Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange GRGS Groupe de Recherches de Geodesic Spatiale (France) GRID Global Resource Information Database (UNEP) GRIP Greenland Icecore Project (PAGES) (Europe) GRIMCO CGBAPS computing system GRM NASA Gravity Satellite (U.S.) GRO Gamma Ray Observatory (NASA) GSA General Services Administration GSA Geological Society of America GS&M Modeling (task team) GSC Geological Survey of Canada (DEMR) GSF Gesellschaft fur Strahlen und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen (Germany) GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) GSL Gulf Stream Locale GSMNP Great Smoky Mountains National Park GSN Global Seismic Network GSP Greenland Sea Project GSPDC Geostationary Satellite Precipitation Data Centre GSRN Global Surface Radiation Network Gt gigaton (1,000 million tons) GtC gigatons (or gigatonnes) of carbon GTCC Gas Turbine Combined Cycle GTCE Global Tropospheric Chemistry Experiment GTE Global Tropospheric Experiment GTOS Global Terrestrial Observing System GTS Global Telecommunications System (WMO and WWW) GUI graphical user interface GVap GEWEX Water Vapor Project ("GvaP"is preferred) GVaP GEWEX Water Vapor Project (preferred over "GVap") GW Gigawatt GWE Global Weather Experiment GWh giga watt hour GWP greenhouse (global) warming potential
H-1211 Halon 1211; CBrClF2 H-1301 Halon 1301; CBrF3 H2 hydrogen H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide ha hectare HAAP high-altitude aerial photograph HAE height above ellipsoid HAGE human activity and global environment HALOE Halogen Occultation Experiment HALSS high-altitude lidar sensing station HAMOCC Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Model HAO High Altitude Observatory (NCAR) HAP hazardous air pollutant HAPEX Hydrological-Atmospheric Pilot Experiment (GEWEX) HAPEX-MOBILHY HAPEX-MOdelisation du BILan Hydrique HARM Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology HASL Health and Safety Laboratory HASP High Altitude Sampling Program HBJ Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (India) HBL Hudson Bay Lowland HBr hydrogen bromide HBW half band-width HCBP hexachlorobiphenol HCCD Historical Canadian Climate Database HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-141b hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141b (CH3CCl2F) HCFC-142b hydrochloroflourocarbon-142b (CH3CClF2) HCFC-22 hydrochloroflourocarbon-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) HCHO formaldehyde (also written as CH2O) HCl hydrogen chloride HCMM Heat-Capacity Mapping Mission HCMM/AEM-1 HCMM/Applications Explorer Mission-1 HCMR heat-capacity mapping radiometer HCN Historical Climatology Network HCN hydrogen cyanide HCND Historical Climatology Network-Daily HD hierarchical diagnosis HDF hierarchical data format HDGCB Human Dimensions of Global Change (programme) (UNU, ISSC, and IFIAS) HDGEC Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (programme) (ISSC) HDP Human Dimensions Program (SEDAC) HDP Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Program (ISSC) HDRL High-Dose Reference Laboratory HDTV High-Definition Television HEC Hydro-Electric Commission (Tasmania) HECP Herbaceous Energy Crops Program HEIFE Heihe River Field Experiment HELCOM Helsinki Commission HEM Harmonizations of Environmental Measurement (program) HESS High Latitude Ecosystems as Sources and Sinks of Trace Gases (IGAC) HEW Health, Education, and Welfare HF hydrogen fluoride HFC hydrofluorocarbon HGCC Hot Gas Clean Up HHMS Hydrostatic Head Monitoring Station HHS Department of Health and Human Services HHV Higher Heating Value (thermal efficiency basis) HI human interactions HIC Habitat International Coalition HILDA high-latitude diffusive-advective model HIMSS high-resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (now MIMR) HIRDLS high-resolution dynamics limb sounder HIRIS high-resolution imaging spectrometer HIRS high-resolution infrared radiation sounder HIS high-resolution interferometer sounder HIS high-spectral resolution interferometer sounder HITRAN High Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Database HLQ holocellulose/lignocellulose quotient HLW high-level waste HMCRI Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute HMMR high-resolution multifrequency microwave radiometer HMSU high-resolution microwave sounding unit HMTA Hazardous Materials Transportation Act HMW high molecular weight HNO3 nitric acid HNRC HOMS National Reference Centre HOC hydrophobic organic compounds HOCl hypochlorous acid HOMS Hydrological Operational Multipurpose Subprogramme (OHP and WMO) HOT Hawaii ocean time (series) HOx odd hydrogen (OH and H2O2) HP health physicist HP health physics HP Hewlett-Packard (gas chromatograph manufacturer) HP High Pressure HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications HPCRC High Performance Computing Research Center (ORNL) HPD Hydrometeorological Processes Division HPLC high-precision liquid chromatography HPLC high-pressure liquid chromatograph/chromatography HPS Health Physics Society (Bethesda, Maryland) HQ headquarters HRDI high-resolution Doppler imager HRE Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (impoundment) HRIRS high-resolution infrared radiation sounder HROI high-resolution optical instrument HRPT high-resolution picture transmission (AVHRR) HRS Hazard Ranking System (EPA) HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generator HRV high resolution video (SPOT) HRV high resolution visible HSA Historic Sites Act (1935) HSL Hazardous Substance List (EPA) HSRL High Spectral Resolution Lidar HSRP High Speed Research Program HST Hawaii standard time HST Hubble Space Telescope HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984) html hypertext markup language http hypertext transport protocol HTW High Temperature Winkler gasifier HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.) HUMICAP Humidity sensor on drifters (FASINEX) HVI high-volume impactor HVS high-volume sampler HWRP Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (WMO) HYNET Intercomparison of Operational Hydrological Network Design Techniques Hz hertz (cycles per second)
3I improved initialization inversion IAA International Academy of Astronautics IABO International Association of Biological Oceanography (ICSU) IABP International Arctic Buoy Programme IAC International Activities Committee IACG Interagency Committee on Geomatics (DEMR) IACGEC Inter-Agency Committee on Global Environmental Change IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency (UN) IAEG International Association for Engineering Geology IAF International Astronautical Federation IAG International Association of Geodesy (IUGG) IAGA International Association of Geomagnetism and Agronomy (IUGG) IAGC International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry IAH International Association of Hydrogeologists (IUGS) IAHR International Association for Hydraulic Research IAHS International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IUGG) IAI Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (START) IAL International Association of Theoretical Applied Limnologists IAMAP International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IUGG) IAMAP-IAHS IAMAP-International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IUGG) IAMAS International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IUGG and ICSU) IAOPA International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association IAP Institute of Atmospheric Physics IAPSO International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IUGG and ICSU) IAR Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (Feiberg, Germany) IAS Image Analysis System IASC International Arctic Sciences Committee IASI infrared atmospheric sounding instrument IASI improved atmospheric sounding interferometer IASI infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer IASPEI International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IUGG) IASTED International Association of Science and Technology for Development IATA International Air Transport Association IATUL International Association of Technological University Libraries IAU International Astronomical Union IAVCEI International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IUGG) IAWPRC International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control IBM International Business Machines (Corp.) IBM PC International Business Machines Personal Computer IBP International Biological Programme (ICSU) IBP International Biophysical Program IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBSRAM International Board for Soil Research and Management IBSS Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) IBWC International Boundary and Water Commission (Independent; U.S. and Mexico) IC industrialized country IC interaction coefficient IC Intergovernmental Council IC ion chromatography ICA International Communication Agency ICACGP International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS) ICALPE International Centre for Alpine Environments (Chambery, France) ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICAR International Center for Action Research ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas ICARUS Interagency Climate-Aerosol Radiative Uncertainties and Sensitivities (Program) ICAS International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences ICASVR International Committee on Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations (IAHS) ICC Instrument Control Center ICCE International Commission on Continental Erosion (IAHS) ICDB Ice Core Data Bank ICE International Cirrus Experiment ICE International Cometary Explorer ICEAR International Centre for Equatorial Atmospheric Research (Indonesia) ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ICF Instrument Control Facility ICGW International Commission on Ground Water (IAHS) ICIC Intercalibrations-Intercomparisons (IGAC) ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India ICID International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development for the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Region (Katmandu, Nepal) ICIP International Conference on Image Processing ICL integrated cloud liquid ICL International-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICSU) ICLD International Commission on Large Dams ICN ice condensation nuclei ICOLD International Commission on Large Dams ICP inductively coupled plasma emission (spectroscopy) ICP/MS inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry ICP-OES inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy ICPP Idaho Chemical Processing Plant ICRAF International Council for Research in Agroforestry ICRCCM Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (program) ICRM International Committee on Radionuclide Meteorology ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRSDT International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (IAHS) ICRU International Commission on Radiological Units ICSC International Civil Service Commission ICSD International Continental Scientific Drilling (program) ICSI International Commission on Snow and Ice (IAHS) ICSTI International Council for Scientific and Technical Information ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions ICSU-ACE ICSU Advisory Committee on the Environment ICSW International Commission on Surface Water (IAHS) ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICWG International Coordination Working Group ICWQ International Commission on Water Quality (IAHS) ICWRS International Commission on Water Resources Systems (IAHS) IDA International Development Agency IDASS Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDCCC Interior Department Cartographic Coordinating Committee (DOI) IDCS Image Dissector Camera System IDDSAC Interim Data Documentation Standard for ARC/INFO Averages IDEAL International Decade for the East African Lakes (project) (PAGES) IDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction IDP Instrument Development Program IDRI Thailand Development Research Institute IDS interdisciplinary science IDSS Integrated Data Sounding System IDRI Thailand Development Research Institute IEA Institute of Energy Analysis IEA International Energy Agency IEA/ORAU Institute of Energy Analysis/Oak Ridge Associated Universities IEC Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IEEE Institute for Electronics and Electrical Engineering IELV intermediate expendable launch vehicle IEM Institute of Experimental Meteorology IEOS International Earth Observing System IERS International Earth Reference System IERS International Ellipsoid Reference System IEW International Energy Workshop IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN) IFDC International Fertilizer Development Center IFE Institute for Energy Technology (Norway) IFIAS International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Study IFIM Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) IFMH Institut fur Meereskunde, Hamburg, Germany IFMK Institut fur Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany IFN Ice-freezing nuclei IFO intensive field observation IFOV instantaneous field of view IFRB International Frequency Registration Board IFREMER Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploration de la Mer IFRTP Institut Francais pour la Researche et la Technologie Polaire (French Institute for Polar Research Technology) IFS Integrated Forest Study on the Effects of Atmospheric Deposition IFS International Foundation for Science IFU Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (Germany) IFYGL International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IHD) IG Institute of Geography IGAC International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (Program) (IGBP and ICACGP) IGAC-SSC IGAC Scientific Steering Committee IGAP International Global Aerosol Program IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU) IGBP-DIS IGBP Data and Information System IGC International Geophysical Cooperation IGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCP International Geological Correlation Programme (IUGS and UNESCO) IGEA International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research IGFA Inter-Governmental Funding Agencies IGFA International Group of Funding Agencies (for Global Change Research) IGLD International Great Lakes Datum IGN Institut Geographique National IGO Intergovernmental Organization IGOSS Integrated Global Ocean Services System (WMO/IOC) IGOSS Integrated Global Ocean Station System (UNESCO) IGPO International GEWEX Project Office IGRSS International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society IGS International Glaciological Society IGT Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago) IGU International Geographical Union (ICSU) IGY International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 - 31 December 1958) IHB International Hydrographic Bureau IHD International Hydrological Decade (UNESCO) IHO International Hydrographic Organization IHP International Hydrological Program (UNESCO) IHS International Heliospheric Study IHSS International Humic Substances Society II interdisciplinary investigator IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Vienna) IIG Indian Institute of Geomagnetism IIID International Institute of Information Design IIOE International Indian Ocean Expedition IISL International Institute of Space Law IITM Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology IJC International Joint Commission (Independent; Canada and U.S.) ILAS Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer ILO International Labor Organization ILWAS Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI) IMA Information Management and Archives (Office) IM-Al inorganic monomeric aluminum IMAGE Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect IMAGES International Marine Global Change Study (PAGES and SCOR) IMB Investigator of Micro-Biosphere IMC ice mass content IMCO Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMD India Meteorological Department IMF ice mass flux IMF International Monetary Fund IMG Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases IMO International Maritime Organization IMO International Meteorological Organization (formerly WMO) IMOP Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (WMO) IMP ice mass path IMS Information Management Services IMS Information Management System IMS International Mountain Society IMU International Mathematical Union IN ice nuclei in. inch Inc. Incorporated INC Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (for a Framework Convention on Climate Change) INC International Negotiating Convention INCD International Convention to Combat Decertification IND Industrial Metabolism Project INDIGO French programme, Indien Gaz Ocean INEL Idaho National Engineering Laboratory INFOCLIMA World Climate Data Information and Referral System INFOTERRA International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information (UNEP) INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazona (Brazil) INPE Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Brazil) INPE Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacialis Brazilian (Brazil) INQUA International Union for Quaternary Research INRA Institut National de Recherche Agronomiques (France) INS inertial navigation system INS Institute Scholars INSA Institut National des Sciences Appliques (France) INSAT Indian Satellite INSTARR Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (University of Colorado, Boulder) INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development (NGO) INT p-iodonitrotetrazolium INTECOL International Association of Ecology (ICSU and IUBS) INZN Institut Zairois pour la Conservation de la Nature I/O input/output IO input/output IOB Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems and Related Activities IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Council (UNESCO) IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO) IOC International Ozone Commission IOCARIBE IOC Sub-Commission for the Carribbean and Adjacent Regions IODE International Oceanographic Data/Information Exchange (IOC) IOP intensive observing period IOPG Indian Ocean Planning Group (JGOFS) IOS Institute of Ocean Sciences (Canada) IP independent pixel IP Internet Protocol IPB Bogor Agriculture Institute (Indonesia) IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO and UNEP) IPCC-EIS IPCC-Energy and Industry Subgroup IPCC/RSWG/EIS IPCC/Response Strategies Working Group/Energy and Industry Subgroup IPEI Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument IPMS International Polar Motion Service IPO WOCE International Planning Office IPOC International Partner Operations Center IPR Intellectual Property Right IPS Inter Press Service IPV isentropic potential vorticity IQSY International Quiet Sun Years ir infrared (preferred over "IR") IR Infrared ("ir" is preferred) IRAP Interdisciplinary Panel on Climate Change IRC International Radiation Commission IRD Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil) IRF instantaneous radiative transfer IRGA infrared gas analyzer IRI International Reference Ionosphere IRIS Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology IRIS infrared interferometer spectrometer IRIS integrated radar imaging system IRP Installation Restoration Program IRRI International Rice Research Institute IRSS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRSSP Interactive Remote Sensing Software Package IRTM infrared thermal mapper IRTS infrared temperature sounder IS92 IPCC Scenarios, 1992 IS Image Subtraction ISA Israel Space Agency ISA Italian Space Agency ISAMS improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder ISAR Intelligent Synthetic Aperture Radar ISAS Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) ISC International Seismological Centre ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (WCRP) ISEATRA International Symposium on Ecological Aspects of Tree-Ring Analysis ISEB 10 Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry ISEE International Sun-Earth Explorer ISEM International Society for Ecological Modelling ISFA International Scientific Film Association ISI International Statistical Institute ISLSCP International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project (GEWEX and WCRP) ISO International Standards Organization ISOS International Southern Ocean Studies ISP International Society for Photogrammetry ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISPs Integrated Steel Plants ISRIC International Soil Reference and Information Centre ISRO Indian Space Research Organization ISS integrated sounding system ISSC International Social Science Council ISSP ICSU Solar System Panel ISSS International Society of Soil Science ISSMFE International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering IST Instrument Support Terminal ISTAP International Space Technology Assessment Program ISTP International Solar Terrestrial Physics ISU International Space University ISWS Illinois State Water Survey ISY International Space Year (1992) ITASE International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (PAGES) ITB Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia) ITB Intergovernmental TOGA Board ITC International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (NERC) ITEM International Technology Environmental (data base) Management (system) ITEX International Tundra Experiment (USMAB Directorate on High Latitude Ecosystems) ITIR infrared thermal imaging radiometer (now ASTER) ITIR intermediate and thermal infrared radiometer ITOS Improved TIROS Operational System ITOY International Tropospheric Ozone Year ITPO International TOGA Planning Office ITPP International TOVS Processing Package ITPR infrared temperature profile radiometer ITRA intercomparison of transmittance and radiance algorithms ITRC Industrial Toxicology Research Centre ITRDB International Tree-Ring Data Bank ITSC International TOVS Study Conference ITU integrated terrain unit ITU International Telecommunication Union IUAES International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences IUB International Union of Biochemistry (ICSU) IUBMB International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology IUBS International Union of Biological Sciences (ICSU) IUCAF Inter-Union Commission on Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy and Space Science IUCC Information Unit on Climate Change IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (now World Conservation Union) (Switzerland) IUCr International Union of Crystallography IUCRM Inter-Union Commission on Radio Meteorology IUCS Inter-Union Commission on Spectroscopy IUE international ultraviolet explorer IUFRO International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (Secretariat, Schonbruan, Vienna) IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (ICSU) IUGS International Union of Geological Sciences (ICSU) IUHPS International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science IUNS International Union of Nutritional Sciences IUPAB International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (ICSU) IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ICSU) IUPAP International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (ICSU) IUPHAR International Union of Pharmacology IUPS International Union of Physiological Sciences IUPsyS International Union of Psychological Science IUR International Union of Radioecologists IUTAM International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICSU) IVA intra vehicular activities Instituto Venezuelan de Investigaciones Cientificas IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute IV&V independent verification and validation IWC Ice water content IWG Investigators Working Group IWGDMGC Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (U.S.) IWP Ice water path IWRA International Water Resources Association IWSA International Water Supply Association IZMIRAN Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Radio Research, and the Ionosphere (Academy of Sciences) (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.)
JASIN Joint Sea-Air Interaction Experiment JASON Scientific panel (MITRE Corporation JAWS Joint Airport Weather Studies (project) JECOR U.S.-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission of Economic Cooperation JEDA Joint Environmental Data Center JEE Japan Environment Agency JEM Japanese Experiment Module JEOS Japanese Earth Observing System JEOS Japanese Earth Observing Satellite JERS-1 Japanese Earth Remote-sensing Satellite-1 JERS Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JPOP) JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (program) (IGBP and SCOR) JGOFS GS JGOFS Global Synthesis JGOFS PM JGOFS Photosynthetic Measurements (task team) JGOFS-SSC JGOFS Scientific Steering Committee JI Joint Implementation JICST Japan Information Center of Science and Technology JIN Joint Implementation Network JIU joint inspection unit JJA June-July-August JMA Japan Meteorological Agency JOC Joint Organizing Committee JOI Joint Oceanographic Institutions (Inc.) JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) (NASA) JPOP Japanese Polar-Orbiting Platform (JERS) JSC Johnson Space Center JSC Joint Scientific Committee (ICSU, WCRP, and WMO) JSC-WCRP Joint Scientific Committee for the WCRP (ICSU and WMO) JST Japan Standard Time JTC joint transfer correlation JTU Jackson turbidity unit
K kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature (the number of kelvins equals the number of degrees Celsius plus 273.15) ka thousands of years KAHE time series station off Kahe Point, Hawaii kbps kilobits per second KEEP Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes KERFIX Kerguelen fixed station (France) (JGOFS) keV kilo electron volts kg kilogram kHz kilohertz kJ kilojoule (energy measure) km kilometer KNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute Kow octanol-water partition coefficient kPa kiloPascal (pressure above ambient (100 kPa = 1 atmosphere excess)) Kr krypton KSC Kennedy Space Center (NASA) KUM Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt hours (3.6 million joules) kyr kiloyear
L/C land cover L liter LAC levelized annual cost LAC local area coverage LAF Lake Acidification and Fisheries (EPRI) LAGCM general circulation model at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) LAGEOS Laser Geodynamics Satellite LAI leaf area index LAID land-atmosphere interactions dynamics LAMBADA Large-scale Atmospheric Moisture Balance of Amazona using Data Assimilation (BAHC and GEWEX) LAMP Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (EPRI) LAN local area network Landsat Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (formerly ERTS) (NASA) Landsat land satellite (photographs of the ground) LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL/ACL Los Alamos National Laboratory's Advanced Computing Laboratory LAPAN National Institute for Aeronautics and Space (Indonesia) LaRC Langley Research Center (NASA) LASE Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment LASER light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation LASR Library Access, Search, and Retrieval LASS Local Area Sounding System lat. latitude LAWS laser atmospheric wind sounder LBL Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (University of California) LBL line-by-line LBLRTM line-by-line radiative transfer model LCC land cover change LCL lifting condensation level LDC less-developed country LDEO Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory LDGO Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory LDR linear depolarization ratio LEADEX Leads Experiment LEAPS Low Electron Attachment Potential Species LEBS Low Emission Boiler Systems LEFI local electric field instrument LEMA Long-term Ecological Modelling Activity (GCTE) LERTS Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Teledetection Spatiale (France) LES Lincoln Experimental Satellite LFM limited fine-mesh model LGM Last Glacial Maximum LHV Lower Heating Value LI library Lidar laser-radar Lidar light detection and ranging (instrument) LIDQA Landsat Image Data Quality and Analysis LIGA Last InterGlacial in the Arctic (project) LIMS Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere LIPI Marine Pollution Monitoring Center (including LIPI's Network of the Center for Research and Development in Oceanography) LIPI Minister of State for Population and Research Environment (Indonesia) LIPI The Indonesian Institute of Sciences LIRAD lidar/radiometer LIS land information system LIS lightning imaging sensor LITE Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment LLL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLW low-level waste LMA Laboratoire de Meteorologie LMD Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique LMER Land Margins Ecosystem Research LMER Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (ORNL) LMES Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred) LNG Liquified Natural Gas LODYC Laboratoire d'Oceanographic Dynamique et de Climatologie LOICZ Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP) LOICZ-SSC LOICZ Scientific Steering Committee long. longitude LOIS Land Oceans Interactions Study LONGLINES Long Hydrographic Sections Programme (U.S.) LORAN Long-Range Area Navigation System LORCS League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies LOTREX Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP) LOTREX Longitudinal Land-Surface Traverse Experiment LOTUS Long-Term Upper Ocean Study, Woods Hole, 1983 LOWESS locally weighted least squares LP Low Pressure LPDA laser-phased Doppler anemometer LPDM Lagrangian particle dispersion model LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas LPI low-pressure impactor LPM liters per minute LR laser retroreflector LRA laser retroreflector array LRP Landscape Research Project (DOE) LRPT low-resolution picture transmission LSC Lake Survey Center (NOAA) LSD least significant difference LSM LAWS Simulation Model LSN long- and short-normal resistivity (geophysical logging) LST local solar time LST local standard time LTER Long-Term Ecological Research (program) (NSF) LTM linear tangent model LTM long-term monitoring LTREB Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology LTRMP Long-Term Resource Monitoring Program (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) LTRRS Long-Term Regional Research Site LUCC Land Use and Cover Change (IGBP and HDP) LUCC-CPPC LUCC Core Project Planning Committee LUCIE Study of circulation north and west of Australia (Leeuwin Current) LV Large Volume water samples (>100 liters) LVS Large Volume Sampling LVS low-volume sampler LW longwave LWC liquid water content LWIR long-wavelength (thermal) infrared LWP liquid water path LWRM longwave radiation model
m meter M-region Maunder region M&CD Metals and Ceramics Division (ORNL) M&E monitoring and enforcement MAA moist-adiabatic adjustment MAB Man and the Biosphere (programme) (UNESCO) MABL Marine atmospheric boundary layer MAC Middle Atmosphere Cooperation (IGAC) MAC Multiphase Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) MACDIF Mapping and Charting Data Interchange Format (Canada) MAESA Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (U.K.) MAGE Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (IGAC) MAGE Marine Gas Emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate (IGAC) MAGIC Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchment MAGS Mackenzie GEWEX Study (Canada) Magsat Magnetic Field Satellite MAHLOVS Middle and High Latitudes Oceanic Variability Study MAKS Martin and Kitzis Sampler (portable air sampler) MAP Middle Atmosphere Programme MAP3S Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study MAP3S/PCN Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Precipitation Chemistry Network MAPS Map Analysis Package System MAPS Measurement of Atmospheric Pollution from Satellites MAPS Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System MARC The Middle Atmosphere Responses to Changes MARDOS "Sources of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment and Their Relative Contributors to Overall Dose Assessment from Marine Radioactivity" (IAEA CRP) MARECO Marine Radioecology Working Group (IUR) MARIA Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents (CEC) MASC Mountain Administration Support Center (NOAA) MASFLEX Marginal Sea Flux Experiment (in the West Pacific) (IGOPS) MAST Marine Science and Technology Programme (CEC) MAT marine air temperature MATS Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Studies MAW Ministry of Agriculture and Water (Saudi Arabia) MB Manitoba mb millibar Mbps megabits per second MBL marine boundary layer MBT Mechanical Bathythermograph MCC mesoscale convective complex MCC Mission Control Center MCF Methane conversion factor McIDAS Man-computer Interactive Data Access System MCL maximum contaminant level mcm million cubic metre MCP Meteorological Communications Package (direct broadcast of operational data) MCS Mesoscale Cloud System MCS Mesoscale Convective Systems MCSST Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (algorithm) MCZ Mesoscale Compressible Community Model MDA Methodology of Decision Analysis (project) MDC more developed country MDE Middle East MDR minimum detectable radiance MDSRS morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering MEA monoethanolamine MECCA Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment MED Mediterranean (the region) (START) MEDCOM Mediterranean Planning Committee (START) MEDCOM Mediterranean Regional Committee (START) MEDIAS Mediterranean and Subtropical Africa MEDIAS Mediterranean Basin and Sub-tropical Africa (regional research network) MEDIAS Reseau de Recherche Regionale pour le Bassin Mediterraneen et l'Afrique Subtropicale MEDS Marine Environmental Data Service (Canada) MEHALICE Methane and Halocarbons Intercalibrations Experiment (IGAC) MELV medium expendable launch vehicle MEPED medium energy proton and electron detector MERGE Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG reduction policies MERIS medium-resolution imaging spectrometer MERIT Monitoring Earth's Rotation and Intercomparison of Techniques MERS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MES Military Engineering Services MESOSOFT Mesoscale Data Management Facility MESEEC Methodologies to Estimate Social, Environmental, and Economic Consequences MESSR multispectral electronic self-scanning radiometer METEOR Operational Weather Satellite (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) Meteor Research vessel (Germany) METEOSAT Geosynchronous Meteorology Satellite (ESA) METEOSAT European Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT) METOP Meteorological Operational Satellite (polar satellite series) MeV mega electron volts MFE Magnetic Fusion Energy (program) MFE/MAGNOLIA MFE/Magnetic Field Experiment Mflops One megaflop equals 1 million (106) floating point operations per second MFO mixed-function oxidase (enzyme system) MFRSR multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer mg milligram MGE MicroStation Foundation and Modular GIS Environment (by Intergraph, Inc.) MGO Main Geophysical Observatory (Russia) Mha million hectare MHRS Modified Hazard Ranking System (DOE) MHS Message Handling System (electronic) MHS microwave humidity sounder MHz megahertz MIADS map information assembly and display system MIAS Marine Information Advisory Service (U.K.) MIBK methyl isobutyl ketone mill(s) 0.001 U.S. dollars MILOX Mid-Latitude Ecosystems and Photochemical Oxidants (IGAC) MIMD multiple instruction, multiple data (system) MIMR multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer (formerly HIMSS) MIMR multiband/multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer min minute MINK Missouri-Iowa-Nebraska-Kansas MIPAS Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (sounder) MIPS millions of instructions per second MIR Orbital System (Russia) MIRSL Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory MIS management information system MISR multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (U.S.) MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan) MITRE Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Establishment MITRE Miniature Individual Transmitter Receiver Equipment MIZ Marginal Ice Zone MIZEX Marginal Ice Zone Experiment MJ megajoule mks meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKS") MKS meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred) mksa meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKSA") MKSA meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred) mL milliliter MLE maximum likelihood estimation MLO Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) (CMDL) MLOPEX MLO Photochemical Experiment MLOPEX II Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemical Experiment II MLR multiple linear regression MLS microwave limb sounder mm millimeter MM4 Mesoscale model 4 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR) MM5 Mesoscale model 5 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR) MMAD mass median aerodynamic diameter MM-Al total monomeric aluminum MMCH4 Methane emitted from animal manure MMES Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred) MMI Modified Mercalli Intensities mmscmd million metric standard cubic metre per day MMTS Maximum-Minimum Temperature System MNRT Minister of State for Research and Technology MOA Memorandum of Agreement MOBILHY Mobilisation du Bilan Hydrique MOC Memorandum of Cooperation MODE Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment MODECS molecular design of chemical systems MODIS moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (NASA/GSFC) MODIS-N moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-Nadir MODIS-T moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-tilt MODMAP modernization of mapping techniques MOGUNTIA Model of the General Universal Tracer transport in the Atmosphere MOLA Mars Observer Laser Altimeter MOM Mission Operations Manager MOM modular ocean model MOMS modular optoelectronic multispectral scanner MONEX Monsoon Experiment MONSEE Monitoring of the Sun-Earth Environment MOP Meteosat Operational Programme MOPITT Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere MORACC modeling radiation clouds, and convection MORFLOT Ministry of the Merchant Marine of the Soviet Union (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.) MORS Group of Experts Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea MOS-1 Marine Observations Satellite-1 (Japan) MOS Marine Observations Satellite MOS model output statistics MOSS Map Overlay Statistical System (by Autometrics) MOT Ministry of Transport (Canada) MOU Memorandum of Understanding MP Medium Pressure MPa Megapascal MPC massively parallel computer MPC maximum permissible concentration MPE Mission to Planet Earth MPF momentary power failure MPI Max Planck Institute (Germany) MPL Marine Physical Laboratory MPL Micropulse Lidar MR Microwave Radiometer MR Methane Recovery MRC Medical Research Council MRI Meteorology Research, Inc. MRIR medium resolution infrared radiometer MS mass spectrometry (spectrometer) MSA methanesulfonate MSC Marine Sciences Council MSC Meteorological Satellite Center MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center MSL mean sea level MSP Motion-Sensing Platform MSR microwave scanning radiometer MSS multispectral scanner (Landsat) MSS multispectral scanner system MST Ministry of Environment and Science MSU microwave sounding unit MSW Municipal solid waste MT million tonne MTCE million tonnes of carbon equivalent MT-CLIM Mountain Climate Model MTCR million tonnes of coal replacement MTMC Military Traffic Management Command MTOE million tonnes of oil equivalent MTS microwave temperature sounder MU microwave unit MUID map unit identification data MUIR map unit interpretation record MVS Minimum-Variance-Simultaneous mW milliwatt MW megawatt Mwh megawatt hours MWDI Master Water Data Index MWIR medium-wavelength infrared MWL municipal waste leachate MWR microwave radiometer MWSR microwave water substance radiometer
N-C Nitrogen-carbon ratio N2 nitrogen N2O nitrous oxide N2O5 nitrogen pentoxide, nitric anhydride N2O-N Nitrous oxide nitrogen trace gas emission ratio NA North America(n) NAAQ National Ambient Air Quality NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NABE North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (JGOFS and IGAC) NACNEMS North American Cooperative Network of Enhanced Measurement Sites NAD 27 North American Datum of 1927 NAD 83 North American Datum of 1983 NADP National Atmospheric Deposition Program (EPA) NADP/NTN National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network NADW North Atlantic deep water NAEG Nevada Applied Ecology Group NAF Northern Africa (START) NAFCOM Northern Africa Committee (START) NAIC Newly Agro-Industrialized Country NAL National Agricultural Library NALMS North American Lake Management Society NAM North America NAMAS National Measurement Accreditation Service NAPAP National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program NAR net assimilation rate NARA National Archives and Records Administration NARC National Atmospheric Radiation Centre (AES) NARE North Atlantic Regional Experiment (IGAC) NARL National Arctic Research Laboratory (Barrow, Alaska) NARS National Archives and Records Service (GSA) NARSNDF North Atlantic Regional Study Narrative Data File NAS National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.) NASA/EDC NASA/Environmental Data Centre NASC North American Stratigraphic Code NASCOM NASA Communications Network NASDA National Space Development Agency (Japan) NASM National Air and Space Museum NASQUAN National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network NAST National Academy of Science and Technology NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATT Northern Australian Tropical Transect NAVSTAR Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging Navstar Global Positioning Satellite Communication Set NAVSWC Naval Surface Warfare Center (DOD) NAWDEX National Water Data Exchange (USGS) NBIOME Northern Biosphere Observation and Modeling Experiment NBIS Northern Biosphere Information System NBRF National Biomedical Research Foundation NBRI National Botanical Research Institute NBS National Biological Survey NBS National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) NC National Committee (IGBP) NCAER National Council of Applied Economic Research NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research (NOAA) (Boulder, Colorado) NCASI National Council on Air and Stream Improvement NCB Net change of biomass NCC National Climatic Center (now NCDC) NCC Network Control Center NCDC National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) (NOAA) NCDCDS National Committee-Digital Cartographic Data Standards (American Congress Surveying & Mapping; formed 1982) NCDS NASA Climate Data System NCE Net carbon emission NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly NMC) NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis NCIC National Cartographic Information Center NCLAN National Crop Loss Assessment Network (EPA) NCMC National Critical Materials Council NCMRWF National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting NCP National Climate Program NCPDI National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Inventory NCPO National Climate Program Office NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCS&T National Council for Science and Technology (formerly FCCSET) NCSU North Carolina State University NCV net calorific value NDBC National Data Buoy Center NDC National Data Centre NDC Nondairy cattle NDCDB National Digital Cartographic Data Base NDF Narrative Data File NDIR non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer NDP numeric data package NDPD National Data Processing Division (EPA) NDSC Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE) NEA Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD) NEAPACC North East Atlantic Palaeooceanography and Climate Change NEB National Environmental Board NECT National Research Council of Thailand NEG WOCE Numerical Experimentation Group NEHA National Environmental Health Association NEIC National Enforcement Investigations Center NEIDA National Estuarine Inventory Data Atlas NEP Noise Equivalent Power NEPA National Environmental Policy Act (1969) NEPP National Energy Policy Plan (DOE) NERC National Environmental Research Centre NERDDC National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Council (Australia) NERI National Environmental Research Institute NERP National Environmental Research Park NERSC National Energy Research Supercomputer Center NES National Energy Strategy NES National Eutrophication Survey NES nuclear estate with small holdings NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NOAA) NESDP National Economic and Social Development Plan NESHAP National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants NESS National Environmental Satellite Service (NOAA) netCDF Network Common Data Format NEXRAD Next-Generation Weather Radar (NWS) nf-EBM noise forced energy balance model NFERC National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center NFMA National Forest Management Act (1976) NGB Nordic Gene Bank NGDC National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA) (Boulder, Colorado) NGM Nested Grid Model NGO nongovernmental organization NGRS National Geodetic Reference System NGS National Geodetic Survey (NOAA) NGSDC National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center NGVD 29 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 NH3 ammonia NH4+ ammonium NH National Highway NH Northern Hemisphere NHAP National High-Altitude Photography Program NHC United States National Hurricane Center NHEML United States National Hurricane Experimental Meteorological Laboratory NHRC National Hydrology Research Centre NHRE United States National Hail Research Experiment NHRI National Hydrology Research Institute NHTSA National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (DOT) NIAES National Institute of Agro-Environmental Studies NIC Newly Industrialized Country NIE National Institute for the Environment NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIES National Institute for Environmental Studies NIEs newly industrializing economies NIGEC National Institute for Global Environmental Change NIH National Institutes of Health NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research Nimbus NASA Meteorological Satellites (1 through 7) Nimbus Satellite Series to Meet the Needs of Atmospheric and Earth Scientists NIO National Institute of Oceanography NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIP normal incidence pyrheliometer NIPDWS National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards NIR near infrared NIRP National Institute for Radiation Protection NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly NBS) NISTEP National Institute of Science and Technology Policy NKA Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy NKO Nederlandse Kalibratie Organisatie NKS Nordic Nuclear Safety Project NLC National Laboratory Consortium NLE National Library for the Environment NLVF Norway Agricultural Research Council Nm3 Normal meter3 nm3 natural metre cubenm nanometer NMC National Meteorological Center (now NCEP) (WWW) NMFECC National Magnet Fusion Energy Computer Center NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA) NMHC nonmethane hydrocarbons NMNH National Museum of Natural History NNMI Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization NNSF National Natural Science Foundation NNSS Navy Navigational Satellite System NNWSI Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (project) NO nitric oxide NO2 nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen peroxide NO3 nitrate radical NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC) NOAH Nitrous Oxide and Halocarbons Division (CMDL) NOBREX North Brazil Current Experiment NODC National Oceanographic Data Center (NOAA) NODC National Ozone Data Center (NOAA) NODS NASA Ocean Data System NOMHICE Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (IGAC) NOO National Oceanographic Office NOPEX Northern Hemisphere Climate Processes Experiment (BAHC) NORDA Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity NORDMAP European Nordic Pollen Data Mapping Project NORPAX North Pacific Expedition NOS National Ocean Survey (NOAA) NOSS National Oceanic Satellite System NOWES Northern Wetlands Study NOx oxides of nitrogen (generic) NOx nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NO3, etc.) NOx-N Nitrogen oxides nitrogen trace gas emission ratio NOy total active nitrogen NOZE National Ozone Expedition NP neutron porosity (geophysical logging) NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPIC National Programme on Improved Chulhas NPL National Physics Laboratory NPOP NASA Polar Orbiting Platform NPP Net Primary Production (IGBP-DIS, and GAIM Working Group) NPS National Park Service (USDI) NR not reported NRA NASA Research Announcement NRC National Research Council (Canada) NRC National Research Council (U.S.) (NAS) NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.) NRCC National Research Council of Canada NRCP National Research Council for the Philippines NRCT National Research Council of Thailand NREN National Research and Education Network NRL Naval Research Laboratory NROSS Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System NRP National Research Program NRPGC National Research Program for Global Change NRSA National Remote Sensing Agency (India) NSA Northern Slope of Alaska NSA/AAO NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean NSBF National Scientific Balloon Facility NSC National Science Council NSC National Security Council NSC Norwegian Space Center NSCAT NASA scatterometer NSERC Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada) NSF National Science Foundation NSFNet National Science Foundation Network NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado, Boulder) NSJI North-South Joint Implementation NSN NASA Space Network NSpC National Space Council NSPD National Space Policy Directive NSS National Stream Survey nss non-sea-salt NSSDC National Space Science Data Center NSSFC National Severe Storms Forecast Center NSSL National Severe Storms Laboratory NSTC National Science and Technology Council (U.S.) NSTL National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA) NSTS National Space Transportation System NSWS National Surface Water Survey (EPA) NTIS National Technical Information Service (DOC) NTN National Trends Network NTS Nevada Test Site NUC National Underseas Research Center NVI normalized difference vegetation index NWLISN Northwest Land Information System Network NWP numerical weather prediction NWPA Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982) NWPM Numerical Weather Prediction Model NWR Niwot Ridge (Denver, Colorado) NWRC National Weather Records Center NWRI National Water Research Institute (Canada) NWS National Weather Service (formerly U.S. Weather Bureau) NWSRFS National Weather Service River Forecast System (U.S.) NWWA National Water Well Association NYU New York University NYU/Ultra New York University's Ultracomputer (project) NZOI New Zealand Oceanographic Institute NZP National Zoological Park
18O oxygen-18 (oxygen isotope with atomic weight of 18) O&M Operation and Maintenance O/N oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio O2 (normal) molecular oxygen O3 ozone Ox odd oxygen (O + O3) OAR Office of Atmospheric Research (NOAA) OARM Office of Administration and Resources Management OAS Organization of American States OASIS Observation at Several Interacting Scales OAST Office of Aeronautics Space Technology (NASA) OAU Organization of African Unity OAXTC Ocean Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Compounds OCAM Afro-Malagasy Common Organization OCC Operations Control Center OCCAM Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Modelling (U.K.) OCE Oceania (START) OClO 	:chlorine dioxide OCN Oceania OCTS ocean color and temperature sensor o.d. outside diameter ODA Official Development Assistance ODA Overseas Development Agency (U.K.) ODAS Oceanic Data Assimilation System ODB Orbit Determination Beacon ODC other data center ODP Ocean Drilling Program ODP ozone-depleting potential OEC Office of Environmental Compliance OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OEG Office of Environmental Guidance OEP Office of Economic Planning OER Office of Energy Research (DOE) OES Bureau of Oceans, International Environment, and Scientific Affairs (USDA) OFDA Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance OFS Office of the Foreign Secretary (NAS and NRC) OGC Oregon Graduate Center (now OGIST) OGCM ocean general circulation model OGI Oregon Graduate Institute (now OGIST) OGIST Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology OGWP Office of Ground Water Protection (EPA) OH hydroxyl radical OHER Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE) OHF Old Hydrofracture Facility (pond) (ORNL) OHP Operational Hydrology Programme (WMO) OIEA Office of Integrated Environmental Analysis (EPA) OIRM Office of Information Resources Management (EPA) OIS Operational Information Service (WWW) OKCS Oklahoma Climatological Survey OLIPAC Oligotrophic Pacific (France) (JGOFS) OLR outgoing long-wave radiation OLS operational license stage OLS operational line scanner OLS optical line scanner OM-Al organic monomeric aluminum OMB Office of Management and Budget (Independent) OMCS ozone monitor comparison system OMDR Optical Memory Disk Recorder Animation System OMEX Ocean Margin Exchanges OMP Ocean Margins Program OMWOG Ocean-based Measurements Working Group ONEB Office of National Environmental Board ONR Office of Naval Research (U.S.) ONWI Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation OPAC Online Public Access Catalog OPC ordinary portland cement OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEX Operational and Executive Personnel for Civil Service OPM Office of Personnel Management OPPE Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation (EPA) OPS optical sensor OPT Optimization Under Uncertainty Project ORAU Oak Ridge Associated Universities ORD Office of Research & Development (EPA) ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL/ACL ORNL/Advanced Computing Laboratory ORR Oak Ridge Reservation ORSTOM Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-mer (Office of Overseas Scientific and Technical Research) (France) OSB Ocean Studies Board OSC Office of Scientific Computing (DOE) OSC Orbital Sciences Corporation OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSR Office of Sponsored Research OSSA Office of Space Science and Applications (NASA HQ) OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiments OST Office of Science and Technology OSTI Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE) OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OSU Oregon State University OSWER Office of Solid Waste and Energy Response (EPA) OTA Office of Technology Assessment OTEC ocean thermal energy conversion OTS Office of Toxic Substances (EPA) OWDC Office of Water Data Coordination (USGS) OWRT Office of Water Research and Technology (DOI) OWS Ocean Weather Station OWSE Operational WWW Systems Evaluation OWSE-NA Operational WWW Systems Evaluation - North America
P/R productivity/respiration P-Code GPS precision transmission code P significance level (statistical) Pa Pascal (1N/m2) PAAD Program Assistance Approval Document PAC Polar Atmospheric Chemistry PACER Program for the Acceleration of Commercial Energy Research PAD Program Approval Document PAF Processing Archiving Facility PAGES Past Global Changes (IGBP) PAGES-EXCOMM PAGES Executive Committee PAGES-SSC PAGES Scientific Steering Committee PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHO Pan American Health Organization PALE Palaeoclimate from Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PAGES) PAM Portable Automated Mesonet PAN peroxyacetylnitrate PANASH Paleoclimates of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere (PAGES) PAR photosynthetically active radiation PAR photosynthetically available radiation PAR Project Appraisal Report PARCC precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, and comparability PASA Participating Agency Service Agreement PASC Polar Atmospheric and Snow Chemistry (IGAC) PASE Polar Air-Snow Experiment PBL planetary boundary layer PBM peribacteroid membrane PBMR Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer PBU peribacteroid unit PC personal computer PC Pulverized Coal PCA principal components analysis PCAST President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison pCO2 partial pressure of CO2 PCU platinum cobalt unit PCR polymerase chain technology PCSSD Philippines Council for Sustainable Development PDA phased-Doppler anemometer PDB isotope standard for carbon PDB Pee Dee Belemnite (Pee Dee River, South Carolina) PDB Pee Dee Belemnite (carbonate) isotope standard for C, O PDE partial differential equation pdf probability density function PDL polarization-diversity lidar PDRCA Participatory Development Resource Centre for Africa PDS Planetary Data System PDS photothermal deflection spectroscopy PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index PECO CEC-COPERNICUS Program PEGASUS Current profiling system PEM Particle Environment Monitor PEM Particle modulator radiometer PEMD personalized educational materials development PEM WEST Pacific Exploratory Mission - West PEP Pole-Equator-Pole (PAGES) (Palaeoclimates Initiative for the Western Hemisphere) PEPCase Phosphenol-pyruvate carboxylase PER Program for Ecological Research PERD Panel for Energy Research and Development PF Pulverized Fuel (coal) PFBC Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor PFCs perfluorocarbon compounds PFRA Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration PFTs perfluorocarbon tracers Pg pentagram PG planning group PGC Program Grande Carajas (Brazil) PGS Product Generation System PHOXA photochemical oxidant and acid deposition model application within the framework of control strategy development PHSA Public Health Service Act (1965) PI principal investigator PIC particle in cell PIC particulate inorganic carbon PICES North Pacific Marine Science Organization PILPS Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (GCIP/GEWEX) PIO Project Implementation Order (AID) PIO/C PIO for Commodities PIO/P PIO for Participant Training PIO/T PIO for Contract Technicians or Contract Services PIP Performance Improvement Program PIP Project Implementation Plan (AID) PIP WetNet Precipitation (algorithm) Intercomparison Project PIR precision infrared radiometer PIRLA Paleoecological Reconstruction of Recent Lake Acidification (EPRI) PIXE Proton induced x-ray emission analysis PJ petajoule PL public law PLDS Planetary Land Data System PLDS Pilot Land Data System PM photosynthetic measurements (JGOFS) PM-2.5 particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 micrometers PM-10 particulate matter less than 10 micrometers diameter PMC pollen mother cell PMC Pressure-Modulator Cell PMEL Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA and ERL) PMF probable maximum flood PMIP Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (NATO and PAGES) PMIR Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer PMOD Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (WRC) PMP probable maximum precipitation PMR pressure-modulated radiometer PNEDC Programme Nationale d'Etude de la Dynamique du Climat (France) PNL Pacific Northwest Laboratory PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (formerly PNL) PO4 phosphate POC particulate organic carbon POCC Payload Operations Control Center POCM parallel ocean-climate model POD Precision Orbit Determination POEM polar-orbiting earth observation mission (ESA) POEMS positron electron magnetic spectrometer POES Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite POES Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite POGO Polar-Orbiting Geophysical Observatory Polarstern Research vessel (Germany) POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances POLES polar exchange at the sea surface POLEX Polar Experiment (FGGE) Polynya Wind or current driven opening in winter sea-ice POM particulate organic matter POM polycyclic organic matter PON particulate organic nitrogen POOZ Permanently Open Ocean Zone POP Population POSEIDON Satellite programme (France) PP perfect program (approach) ppb parts per billion (109) ppbv parts per billion (109) by volume PPFD photosynthetic photon flux density ppm parts per million (106) ppmv parts per million (106) by volume PPP Polluter pays principle PPP Purchasing power parity PPR photopolarimeter radiometer ppt parts per trillion (1012) pptv parts per trillion (1012) by volume PR precipitation radar PRARE precise range and range-rate equipment (ERS-1) PRAREE precise range and range rate equipment-extended PRC People's Republic of China PRC precipitation PRF pulse repetition frequency PRL Physical Research Laboratory PRN Pseudo-Random Noise PROBE Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment PRT precision radiation thermometer PSA Pacific Sciences Association PSAC President's Science Advisory Committee PSC polar stratospheric clouds PSD prevention of significant deterioration (NPS, regulations of the CAA) PSDPC Polar Satellite Data Processing Centre Psfc surface pressure PSFG Permanent Service on the Fluctuation of Glaciers psi pounds per square inch PSL polystyrene latex PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (U.K.) PSO Project Science Office PSP Precision Spectral Pyranometer PSPDC Polar Satellite Precipitation Data Centre PSSI Pacific/Sulfur/Stratus Investigation PSU Pennsylvania State University PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene PU processing unit PUMS Public Use Microdata Samples PUSPITEK Training Facilities in the Centre for Research, Science, and Technology PV potential vorticity PVC polyvinyl chloride PW precipitable water PWD Public Works Department PWV precipitable water vapor
QA quality assurance QAMS Quality Assurance Management Staff QA/QC quality assurance/quality control QBO quasi-biennial oscillation QC quality control QCE Quality Control Experts (WOCE Hydrographic Programme) QLN Quantitative Links Networks QN quinoline QTL Quantitative Trait Loci QTO quasi-triennial oscillation Quads Quadrillion (1015) Btu
r2 coefficient of determination (statistical) R/C Residue Crop ratio R&D research and development R&SSD Radiation and Safety Surveys Department (ORNL) R/V research vessel RA Radar altimeter RA Regional Association (WMO) RA-2 POEM altimeter (ESA) RA I Regional Association I - Africa (WMO) RA II Regional Association II - Asia (WMO) RA IV Regional Association IV - North and Central America (WMO) RAD Radioecology Programme (NKS) radar radio detection and ranging Radarsat Synthetic Apeture Radar Satellite (Canada) RADCAL Radiation Calibration Laboratory RADPATH Biochemical Pathways of Artificial Radionuclides (CEC) RAE Royal Aircraft Establishment RAFOS SOFAR spelled backwards (float which receives sound signals) RAI Rainfall Anomaly Index RAM random-access memory RAMP Remote Atmospheric Measurements Program RAMP Remote Atmospheric Monitoring Project RAMS regional atmospheric modeling system RAMS Remote Atmospheric Measurements Systems RAMS Results Analysis and Management System (EPA) RANN Research Applied to National Needs (NSF) RAOB Radiosonde or Rawindsonde Observation RAP Remedial Action Program (DOE) RAPD Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique RASC Radio Atmospheric Study Centre RASS radio-acoustic sounding system RAWG/Hydrology Regional Associations' Working Groups on Hydrology (WMO) RBV return-beam Vidicon rcf relative centrifugal force RCM radiative-convective model RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) RCRE required collaborative research experience RCS radar cross section RCW "Rapidly Changing World" Scenario (EPA) RCWP "Rapidly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA) RDAAC Remote Data, Analysis, and Archive Center RDBMS Relational Data Base Management System (Oracle) RDP Radar Development Project RDT remote data transmission REFLEX Remote Fluvial Experimental Series REKLIP Regional Climate Project (REgio-KLIma-Projekt) RES Regional Evaporation Study RESA Scientific Research Society of America RESSAC The Consequence of a Major Nuclear Accident on the Surrounding Environment: Soil and Surface Rehabilitation (CEC) RET renewable energy technologies RF radio frequency RFE Regional Finite Element (model) RFD Royal Forestry Department RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism RFP Request for Proposals RGA reduction gas analyzer RGA relative growth rate RGB red-green-blue (signal) RGCT Reflective Gross Cloud Test RGI regional-global interactions RGIS regional geographic information system RGR relative growth rate RGS Royal Geographical Society RH relative humidity RHIESSys Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System RI radar interferometry RIC Regional Information Center RICE Rice Cultivation and Trace Gases Exchange (India) (IGAC) RIDGE Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment RIGES Renewable Intensive Global Energy System RIHMI-WDC All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center RILWAS Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI) RIMI Riso Integrated Environmental Project RIS reflector in space (laser beam adsorption, measures O3, CFCs, etc.) RIS retroreflector in space RISC reduced instruction set chip RISC reduced instruction set computer RITS radiatively important trace species RIVM Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RK river kilometer RLU relative light unit RM reference material RM river mile RMC Regional Meteorological Centre (WWW) RMES Relay Mirror Experimental Satellite rms root mean square (preferred over "RMS") RMS root mean square ("rms" is preferred) rmse root mean square error (preferred over "RMSE") RMSE root mean square error ("rmse" is preferred) RMTC Regional Meteorological Training Centre Rn radon RNA ribonucleic acid RNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute ROM read-only memory ROPME Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (IOC) RPA remotely piloted aircraft RPE Office of OECD, European Community, and Atlantic RPM Office of NATO and Atlantic Political-Military Affairs rpm revolutions per minute RPN Division de la recherche en prevision numerique RPSS relative partial sum of squares RRC Regional Research Centre (START) RRCT Reflectance Ratio Cloud Test RRN Regional Research Networks (START) RRN ANT RRN Antarctic RRN ART RRN Arctic RRN CAA RRN Central Arid Asia RRN CAR RRN Caribbean RRN ESA RRN Equatorial South America RRN MED RRN Mediterranean RRN NAF RRN Northern Africa RRN OCE RRN Oceania RRN SAF RRN Southern and Eastern Africa RRN TAM RRN Tropical Asian Monsoon Region RRN TEA RRN Temperate East Asia RRN TNH RRN Temperate Northern Hemisphere RRN TSA RRN Temperate South America RRS regional research sites (START) RRTM rapid radiative transfer model RS remote sensing RSA Republic of South Africa RSAC Remote Sensing Applications Center (China) RSD residual standard deviation RSF LANL computer code RSMC Regional/Specialized Meteorological Centre RSR rotating shadowband radiometer rss root-sum-square RSS rotating shadowband spectrometer RSSD Responses of Savannas to Stress and Disturbance (IUBS and MAB) RT radiative transfer RTD real-time data RTH Regional Telecommunication Hub RTNEPH real-time nephanalysis RUC Roskilde University Center RUT reflectance uniformity test RVAU Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University RVB return-beam Vidicon RWC Regional Warning Centre RWVL Raman Water Vapor Lidar
s second (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "sec" for "secant") S&R search and rescue S&T science and technology S-GCOS Space-Based Global Change Observation System SA90 IPCC Scenario A, 1990 SA Selective Availability (on GPS transmissions) SABLE simulator atmospheric boundary layer environment SAC Special Analysis Centre (WOCE) SAC Satellite Application Centre SAC Scientific Advisory Committee SAC Scientific Advisory Council (IGBP) SADC Southern Africa Development Community SADCC Southern African Development Coordination Conference SAF Society of American Foresters SAF Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa (START) SAFARI-92 South African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative SAFCOM Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa Regional Committee (START) SAFIRE spectroscopy of the atmosphere using far infrared emission SAFISY Space Agency Forum on International Space Year (1992) SAGA Soviet-American Gas and Aerosol Experiment SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment SAGE III Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III SAHC South Asia Hydrological Cycle SAIC Science Applications International Corporation SAIL Steel Authority of India Limited SalArgos Argos-located buoy equipped with temperature and conductivity sensors SAM Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement SAM II Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement SAMBO Simultaneous Auroral Multi-Balloons Observations SAMS stratospheric and mesospheric sounder SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (U.S.) SAP Scientific Advisory Panel (SARCS) SAR Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research SAR synthetic aperture radar (satellite) SARB surface and atmospheric radiation budget SARCS Southeast Asia Regional Committee (START) SARCS-SAP SARCS Scientific Advisory Panel SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite SAS Southern Asian Region (START) SAS Statistical Analysis System SASANEE South and Southeast Asia Network for Environmental Education SASS Seasat A Scatterometer System SASI Statistical Analysis Systems Institute (Raleigh, North Carolina) SAT surface air temperature SATOBS Satellite Observations SATOR Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Research SAVE South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment SAW sawlog harvest SBC Brazilian Society for Cartography, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Remote Sensing SBC sum of base cations SBIR Small Business Innovation Research SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (experiment) SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (radiometer) SBUV-2 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet-2 SC Scientific Committee (IGBP) SC standing committee SCA snow-covered areas SCANSCAT scanning scatterometer SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (ICSU) SCARAB Scanner for the Radiation Budget SCARABE Scanner for Radiative Budget Experiment SCAT radar scatterometer SCATT scatterometer SCD Scientific Computing Division (NCAR) SCF Scientific Computing Facility SCIAMACHY scanning, imaging, and absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography SCIBP Scientific Committee for the International Biological Programme SC-IGBP Special Committee of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (ICSU) SCM single-column model SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (ICSU and IGBP) SCOR Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (ICSU) SCORPIO Oceanographic cruise in the South Pacific, 1968 (U.S.) SCOSTEP Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics SCOT Services Consultance en Observation de la Terre SCPP Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction Program SCRIPPS Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of California at San Diego) SCS Soil Conservation Service (Anchorage, Alaska) (USDA and DOA) SCS Swiss Calibration Service SCST State Commission for Science and Technology (Survey of India) SCW "Slowly Changing World" Scenario (EPA) SCWP "Slowly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA) SD standard deviation s.d. standard deviation SDAC Satellite Data Analysis Center SDC Swiss Development Corporation SDS site data system SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate SDSC San Diego Supercomputer Center SDSD Satellite Data Services Division SDSS Spatial Decision Support System SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act SEAMEO South East Asian Ministers Education Organization SEAREX Sea-Air Exchange (program) SEAS Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System Seasat sea satellite (an oceanographic research satellite) (NASA) SEASPAN SEAREX South Pacific Aerosol Network SeaStar Spacecraft flying SeaWIFS SEATO Southeast Asian Treaty Organization SeaWIFS sea-viewing wide-field sensor SEB State Electricity Board SEBEX Sahelian Energy Balance Experiment SEC Science Executive Committee of the IWG sec secant (trigonometric function) (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "s" for "second") SECTIONS Oceanographic Programme of the U.S.S.R. SEDAC Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (CIESIN) SEL Standard Elektrik Lorenz (AG Stuttgart, Germany) SELPER Society of Latin American Remote Sensing Specialists SELV small expendable launch vehicle SEM scanning electron microscope SEM space environment monitor SERC Smithsonian Environmental Research Center SERC Science Executive Research Council (U.K.) SERDP Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program SERI Solar Energy Research Institute (Golden, Colorado) SERON Southeastern Regional Oxidant Network SERP Sedimentary Rock Program SESAME Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment SESAME Second European Stratospheric Arctic Middle Latitude Experiment SESC Space Environment Service Center SETAC Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry SF screening factor SFC surface SGCR Subcommittee on Global Change Research SGM second-generation model SGP single Gauss point SGP Southern Great Plains SGR specific growth rate SH Southern Hemisphere SHARE Software Help for Applications, Research, and Education SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean SHPO state historic preservation officer (Memphis) SHSG Spherical Harmonic Spatial Grid (model) SI International System of Units (Systeme International d'Unites) (standard metric units; replaced mks and mksa systems) SI Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.) SI solar influences SIAM Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) SiB simple biosphere (model) SIDS Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States SIFE Second ISCCP Field Experiment SIG-WAIS Special Interest Group-Wide Area Information Server SIMD Single Instruction, Multiple Data (system) (processor) SINTEF Norwegian Institute of Technology SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) SiO3 silicate SIP Solar Influences Program SIR Scientific Information and Retrieval (system) SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR Spaceborne Imaging Radar SIR-C Shuttle Imaging Radar-C SIROS solar and infrared radiation observation stations SIRS satellite infrared spectrometer SISEX Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment SIT Servizio di Taratura in Italia SITE Satellite Instructional Television Experiment SIV solar and interplanetary variability SIZ Seasonal Ice Zone SJVF Veterinary Agricultural Research Council SK Saskatchewan SLA Special Libraries Association SLAR side-looking airborne radar SLB shallow land burial SLEJF Sri Lanka Environmental Journalists Forum SLIES stratospheric limb infrared emission spectrometer SLP sea-level pressure SLR satellite laser ranging SLR sea level rise SLS stereo line scanner SLURP Simple Linear Unit Reservoir Program Sm3 Standard meter3 SMC System Management Center SMCRA Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act SME Society of Mining Engineers SME Solar Mesosphere Explorer SMIC Study of Man's Impact on Climate SMM Solar Maximum Mission SM-MIMD shared memory, multiple instruction, and multiple data (computer) SMMR scanning multichannel microwave radiometer SMMR scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer SMO Samoa Observatory (American Samoa) (CMDL) SMOS surface meteorological observation system SMOW standard mean ocean water isotope standard SMS Synchronous Meteorological Satellite SMS/GOES SMS/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite SMY solar maximum year SN Space Network SNAS Strategic National Alternatives Study SNL Sandia National Laboratories SNL/PPG SNL/Parallel Processing Group SNOTEL snow survey and remote telemetry SNR signal-to-noise ratio SO Southern Oscillation SO2 sulfur dioxide SO4 sulfate radical Sox Oxides of sulfur SOA state-of-the-art SOC Specialized Oceanographic Centre (IGOSS) SOC soil organic carbon SOCC Satellite Operation Command and Control SOCEX Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment SOFAR Sound Fixing and Ranging (float with sound source) SOHO Solar Heliospheric Observatory SOI Southern Oscillation Index SOI Survey of India SOLSTICE Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment SOMMA single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzer SOP Ship of Opportunity Programme SOP standard operating procedures SOPAC South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission SORTI solar-radiance-transmission interferometer SOS Southern Oxidants Study SOS/SONIA SOS/Southeast Oxidant and Nitrogen Intensive Analysis SOTER Soil and Terrain Survey SP spontaneous potential (geophysical logging) SPARC stratospheric processes and their role in climate SPADE Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols, and Dynamics Expedition SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network SPARC Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate SPARCLE Spaceborne Aerosols and Cloud Lidar Earthprobe SPAS Shuttle Pallet Satellite SPECMAP Mapping Spectral Variability in Global Climate Project SPECTRE Spectral Radiance Experiment SPELDA Structure Porteuse External pour Lancements Doubles Ariane (external support structure for Ariane dual-launches) SPIE Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers SPM suspended particulate matter SPO South Pole Observatory (Antarctica) (CMDL) SPOT Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (France) SPOT Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre (France) SPR single point resistance (geophysical logging) SPREP South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme SPREX Spring Runoff Experiment (DOE) SPSO Science Processing Support Office SR scanning radiometer SR size-resolving SRA Society for Risk Analysis SRAD spectral radiometer SRB surface radiation budget SRC Saskatchewan Research Council SRC Science Research Council (formerly DSIR) (U.K.) SRDC Surface Reference Data Centre SRF Solar Radiation Facility (CMDL) SRF spectral response function SRIC short-rotation intensive culture SRL Shuttle Research Laboratory SRM standard reference material SRP soluble reactive phosphorus SRS Statistical Reporting Service SRS1 South Research Station 1 (WOCE) SRWCP Short Rotation Woody Crop Program SS stainless steel (flasks) SSA singular spectrum analysis SSALT solid-state (radar) altimeter SSARR Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (model) SSB Space Science Board (NRC) SSB Space Studies Board SSBUV shuttle solar backscatter ultraviolet (radiometer) SSC Scientific Steering Committee (JGOFS, PAGES, and IGBP) SSEC Space Science and Engineering Center SSG Scientific Steering Group SSHT Sea Surface Height (above some reference ellipsoid) SSI Spectral Statistical Interpolation SSM special sensor microwave SSM/I SSM/imager SSM/T SSM/temperature SSMI Special Sensor Microwave Instrucments (Satellite) SSMR-SSM/I scanning multichannel microwave radiometer-SSM/I SSP scanning spectral polarimeter SSSA Soil Science Society of America SSSD state soil survey data base SST sea-surface temperature SSU stratospheric sounding unit SSURGO soil survey geographic data base (USDA and SCS) ST Steam Turbine STA Science and Technology Agency (Japan) STA Strategic Transportation Analysis (integrated transportation networks for MTMC) STACS Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study (U.S.) STAP Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (GEF) STAR Space Three-Axis Accelerometer for Research STARE Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment START System for Analysis, Research, and Training (IGBP, WCRP, and HDP) START-SC START Standing Committee STEM solar terrestrial environment model STEP Solar Terrestrial Energy Program STIB Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction and the Biosphere (IGBP) STIKSCAT stick scatterometer STIP Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena STMW Sub-Tropical Mode Water STORET Storage and Retrieval System (water quality data; EPA) STORM Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (program) STORM-FEST Storm-scale Observations Regional Measurement Program-Fronts Experiment Systems Test STP standard temperature and pressure (0° and 1 atm) STP Subsurface Transport Program (DOE and OHER) STRATOZ Stratospheric Ozone (campaign) STRESS sediment transport events on shelves and slopes STRI Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute STRIVE Science Teachers Research Involvement for Vital Education (now TRAC) STSB Scientific and Technical Services Branch (BoM) SUBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice SUBIM Subsidiary Body on Implementation SUNY State University of New York SUP soluble unreactive phosphorus SURE Sulfate Regional Experiment SURTROPAC Survey of the Tropical Pacific Experiment (France) SUSIM Solar Ultraviolet Spectral irradiance monitor Sv Sverdrup (106m3s-1); Measure of water transport SV Small Volume water samples (< 10 liters) SVAT soil vegetation atmosphere transfer (model) (BAHC) SVATS Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme SW shortwave SWACOM Standard Water Column Model SWADE Surface Wave Dynamic Experiment SWCA Soil and Water Conservation Act (1977) SWCC Second World Climate Conference (1990) SWDA Solid Waste Disposal Act SWE shallow-water equations SWEDAC Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation SWF social welfare function SWG Science Working Group SWG Standards Working Group SWH significant wave height SWIR short wavelength infrared SWIRLS stratospheric wind infrared limb sounder SWSA solid waste storage area SWT Science Working Team SY Seasonal Year
T/C Temperature/Conductivity sensor chains on drifters T/P SWT TOPEX/Poseidon Science Working Team T/S Temperature/Salinity TC/OPC Technical Committee on Ocean Processes and Climate (Germany) T tonne TA trace analytical TAAF Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises (France) TABLE Tsukuba Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment TAC Tactical Air Command (U.S. Air Force bases) (now ACC) TAE Transportable Applications Executive (a computer user interface) TAGA trace atmospheric gas analyzer Talk total alkalinity TAM Tropical Asian Monsoon Region (START) TAO Tropical Atmosphere Ocean TAO Tradeable Absorption Obligation; also implicitly, tradeable (net) absorption obligation TAP Transboundary Air Pollution (project) TAPPI Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry TARFOX Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observation Experiment TBD to be determined TCA trichloracetic acid TCAD Tradeable Carbon Absorption Obligation TCDC technical cooperation among developing countries TCLP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (EPA) TCO Technical Cooperation Activities (WMO) TCO2 total CO2 TCP Tropical Cyclone Programme (WMO) TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCR tonnes of coal replacement TDC Tropical Data Centre TDDR total direct diffuse radiometer TDL Techniques Development Laboratory TDLAS tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer TDLS tunable diode laser spectroscopy TDMA tandem differential mobility analyzer TDR time domain reflectometry TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Systems TDRSS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TDS total dissolved solids TDY temporary duty TEA Temperate East Asia (START) TEA-COM Temperate East Asia-Planning Committee (START) TEAM Technology Base Enhancement for Autonomous Machines TEAMA Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia TEC total electron content TECO Terrestrial Ecological Research Initiative TECO terrestrial ecosystems TED Technological and Economic Dynamics TED total energy detector TEDDY TERI Energy Data Directory Yearbook TEESE TERI Energy Economy Simulation Evaluation TEGD Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA) TEHM Terrestrial Ecosystem Hydrology Model TEM Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (GAIM) TERI Tata Energy Research Institute TERLS Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (India) TERRA Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional Research and Analysis (Laboratory) TERSE Tunable Etalon Remote Sounder TES tropospheric emission spectrometer TF throughfall TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan (coordinated by FAO) Tflops One teraflop equals 1 trillion (1012) floating point operations per second Tg Teragrams or million tonnes TG trace gas TGCR thermal gross cloud restoral TGCT thermal gross cloud test TGDDIS Trace Gas Dynamics Data Information System TGI temperature growth index TGT TDRSS Ground Terminal TI thermal imagery TIA Territorial and International Affairs TIC total inorganic carbon TIGER Terrestrial Initiative in Global Environmental Research (U.K.) TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Reference (system) (BOC) TIGER/GICS TIGER/Geographic Identification Code Scheme (U.S. Census Bureau) TIGER/GRF-N TIGER/Geographic Reference File-Names (BOC) TIGGER Earth sciences dimension to TIGER TIGR TOVS initial guess retrieval TIMSS thermal infrared spectral scanner TIN Triangular Irregular Network TIR thermal infrared TIROS Television and Infrared Observation Satellite TIROS Topographic Infrared Operations Satellite TIRS thermal infrared scanner TISAB total ionic strength adjustment buffer (analytical method) TISGLOW TERI Information Service on Global Warming TKE turbulent kinetic energy TL Team Leader TLCF Team Leader Computing Facility TLV threshold limit value TM team member TM Thematic Mapper (Landsat) TMACS International Mathematics and Computer Simulations TMC Thinking Machine Corporation TME tropical mountain ecosystems (IUBS and MAB) TMI TRMM microwave imager TMR TOPEX microwave radiometer TMS thematic mapper simulator TMS Typical Shape Functions, Maximum A Posteriori Simultaneous TNH Temperate Northern Hemisphere (START) TOA top of the atmosphere TOA tropical ocean-atmosphere (array) TOC total organic carbon TOCE tonne of carbon equivalent TOCSEEG Tradeoffs Among Competing Social, Environmental, and Economic Goals TOF theoretical orthogonal function TOGA Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (program) (WCRP) TOGA-COARE TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment TOMCAT Toulouse Off-Line Model of Chemistry and Transport TOMS total ozone mapping spectrometer (experiment) TOMS total ozone measuring satellite TOMUIS 3-D ozone mapping with ultraviolet imaging spectrometer TON total organic nitrogen TOPEX Topography Experiment TOPEX Topography Ocean Experiment (NASA and CNES) TOPEX/POSEIDON Ocean Topography Experiment (NASA/CNES Satellite Programme) TOR Tropospheric Ozone Research (EUROTRAC) torr pressure in millimeters of mercury with respect to vacuum TOS TIROS Observational System TOVS TIROS operational vertical sounder TOX total organic halides TRAC Teacher Research Associate (program) (formerly STRIVE) TRACE-A Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic TRAGEX Trace Gas Exchange between Midlatitude Terrestrial Ecosystems and Atmosphere (IGAC) TRANSPAC Trans-Pacific Experiment TRANSIT Satellite Navigation (position location) System (U.S.) TREES Tropical Ecosystem Environmental Observations by Satellite TREM Tropical Rainfall Experimental Mission TRL Transuranium Research Laboratory TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (U.S.-Japan) TROPOZ Tropospheric Ozone (Campaign) TRSC Thailand Remote Sensing Centre TRUCE Tropical Urban Climate Experiment TSA Temperate South America (START) TSAR Time-series Storage and Retrieval (system) TSC Transportation Systems Center (DOT) TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act (1976) TSD Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (facilities) Tsfc surface temperature TSI Thermo Systems, Inc. TSL Technical Services Laboratory TSP total soluble phosphorus TSP total suspended particles TSS total suspended solids TSS Total Surveying Systems TT task team TTO total toxic organic (compounds) TTO transient tracers in the ocean (survey) TUNES Thomas Washington's Unexpected Nautical Extravaganza South-north (expeditions) TUR thermal uniformity restoral TUT thermal uniformity test TVA Tennessee Valley Authority (U.S. Independent) TWAS Third World Academy of Science TWP tropical Western Pacific TWPO Tropical Western Pacific Ocean TWRA Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency TWT Traveling Wave Tube
UAF University of Alaska-Fairbanks UAOB Upper Air Observation UARP Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (NASA) UATI Union des Associations Techniques Internationals UAV unmanned aerospace vehicle UBA Umweltbundesamt (Germany) UC University of California UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research UCI University of California, Irvine UCLA University of California at Los Angeles (U.S.) UCR University of California at Riverside UCRL UC Radiation Laboratory UCS Secretariat to the U.S. National Commission UCSB University of California, Santa Barbara UCSF University of California at San Francisco UEA University of East Anglia (U.K.) UDF UAV demonstration flights UFACNC ultrafine aerosol condensation nucleus counter UGAMP U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Project UGM University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia UH University of Heidelberg (Germany) UHF ultra high frequency UIC Ukpeaguik Inupiat Corp. UIC Underground Injection Control (program) UI/CSRD University of Illinois/Center for Supercomputing Research and Development UITA Union of International Technical Associations U.K. United Kingdom (preferred over "UK"; use as adjective only; spell out as noun) UKAEA U.K. Atomic Energy Authorities UKMO U.K. Meteorological Office ULS upward-looking sonar ULST uniform low stratus test UMTA Urban Mass Transportation Administration (DOT) UMTRAP Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program UMTRCA Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act UN United Nations UNARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UNCED United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development UNCHS United Nations Commission for Human Settlement UNCTAD United Nations Commission on Trade and Development UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Developmental Program UNDRC Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator UNEC United Nations Economic Committee UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme (ICSU) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFPA United Nations Program for Population UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNGCRP United Nations Global Change Research Program UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women UNISIST United Nations System for Scientific and Technological Information UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNJSPF United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund UNM University of New Mexico UNO United Nations Organization UNP United Nations Political Affairs UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSO United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office UNTAB United Nations Technical Assistance Board UNU United Nations University UPS uninterruptible power supply UPU Universal Postal Union URAS (a commercial CO2 analyzer) URI University of Rhode Island, Narragansett URL Uniform Resource Locator (Mosaic) URL upper range limit URSI International Union of Radio Science US-AID U.S. Agency for International Development U.S. United States U.S.A. United States of America USACE United States Army Corps of Engineers (DOD) USAF United States Air Force USBCF United States Bureau of Commercial Fisheries USBM United States Bureau of Mines USBR United States Bureau of Reclamation (USDI) USCG United States Coast Guard USCGS United States Coast and Geodetic Survey USDA United States Department of Agriculture USDA-SCS United States Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service USDC United States Department of Commerce (also DOC and USDOC) USDD United States Department of Defense (also USDOD and DOD) USDI United States Department of the Interior (also DOI and USDOI) USDOC United States Department of Commerce (also DOC and USDC) USDOD United States Department of Defense (also DOD and USDD) USDOE United States Department of Energy (also DOE) USDOI United States Department of the Interior (also DOI and USDI) USDW usable supply of drinking water USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency (also EPA) USFS United States Forest Service (USDA) USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service USGCRP United States Global Change Research Program USGCRPO United States Global Change Research Program Office USGS United States Geological Survey (DOI) USIA United States Information Agency US-IGBP United States Geosphere/Biosphere Program USJGOFS United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study USMAB United States Man and the Biosphere USMAPS United States Map Analysis Package System USN United States Navy USNC/IHP United States National Committee for IHP USNC/SH United States National Committee on Scientific Hydrology USNMAS United States National Map Accuracy Standard USO ultra-stable oscillator U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now Russian Federation) USWB United States Weather Bureau USWOCE United States component of WOCE UT universal time UT University of Tennessee UTC Universal Time Coordinate UTM Unified Transport Model UTM university transverse mercator (cartography) uv ultraviolet (preferred over "UV") UV ultraviolet ("uv" is preferred) uv-A ultraviolet type A uv-B ultraviolet type B (280-320 nanometer wavelength interval) UVR ultraviolet radiation uv-vis ultraviolet-visible (spectroscopy) UW University of Washington (Seattle) UW University of Wisconsin UWG user working group UW/UD University of Wisconsin/University of Denver
V-PDB international scale for expressing C and O isotopic composition relative to PDB carbonate VACM Vector Averaging Current Meter VAD velocity azimuth display VAM vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza VAMP Validation of Model Project (IAEA) VAS VISSR atmospheric sounder (GOES) VEI volcano explosivity index VCP Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN) VCP (ES) Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN) VCP (F) Voluntary Cooperation Program (fund) vfr very far radiation vhf very high frequency VHRR very high resolution radiometer VHSA variable hydrologic source areas VIRS visible infrared scanner VIRSR visible infrared scanning radiometer VIS visible VISSR visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (GOES) VLBI very long baseline interferometry VLSI very large scale integration VMS Virtual Memory System VMVM Vector Measuring Current Meter VNIR visible and near infrared VOC volatile organic compound VOS voluntary observing ship (WMO) VSSC Vikram Sarabhai Space Center VTIR visible and thermal infrared radiometer VTPR vertical temperature profile radiometer VTR video tape recording
w watt WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet (project) (PAGES) WAMEX West African Monsoon Experiment WARC World Administrative Radio Conference WATOX Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment WATFLOOD University of Waterloo Flood Forecasting System (Canada) WATSTORE Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (USGS) WB World Bank WBC Western Boundary Current WBDCS Wide-Band Data Collection System WBIS Walker Branch Information System WBW Walker Branch Watershed (introduced as an "experimental facility") WCAP World Climate Applications Program (WMO) WCASP World Climate Applications and Services Program (WMO) WCDMP World Climate Data and Monitoring Program (WMO) WCDP World Climate Data Program WCIP World Climate Impact Program WCIRP World Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies Program (UNEP) WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/ICSU) WCRP World Climate Research Programme (WMO, ICSU, and IOC) WCRP-JSC Joint Scientific Committee (WCRP) WD wind direction WDC World Data Center (ICSU) WDCGG World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (JMA/WMO) WDSD Water Data Sources Directory (USGS) WEAVE Water and Energy: Atmospheric, Vegetative, and Earth Interactions WEBB Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (USGS) WEC World Energy Council WECC Western European Calibration Cooperation WEFAX weather facsimile (via geosynchronous weather satellite) WENPEX Western North Pacific Cloud-Radiation Experiment WEO Western European Organization (ECOSOC region comprising W. Europe, Canada, U.S., and Japan) WES Waterways Experiment Station (USACE) WESTPAC IOC - Programme Group on the Western Pacific WET waste extraction test WetNet Network for Distribution and Joint Analysis of SSM/I Data (MSFC) WEU Western Europe WEV Water Energy-Vegetation WEVS Wetland Ecosystem Vulnerability Study WFC World Food Council (UN) WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations WFF Wallops Flight Facility WFOV Wide Field of View WFP World Food Program WG working group WGEP working group on energy policy WGDM working group on data management WGGC working group on global change WGNE working group on numerical experimentation (JSC/CAS) WGR Waste Generation Rate WGRF working group on radiative fluxes WHO World Health Organization WHOI Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Massachusetts) WHP WOCE Hydrographic Programme WIHG Waclia Institute of Himalayan Geology WILASS Water Infiltration in Layered Subfreezing Snow (program) WIND weather information display WINDII Wind Imaging Interferometer WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WIRP Watershed Integrated Research Program (DOE) WISP Winter Icing and Storms Programs WITS World Ionosphere Thermosphere Study WMC World Meteorological Center (WWW) WMO World Meteorological Organization (ICSU) WMS World Magnetic Survey WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WCRP) WOCE/HP WOCE/Hydrographic Program WODC World Ozone Data Center WOVO World Organization of Volcano Observatories WP wind profilers WPCF Water Pollution Control Federation WPL Wave Propagation Laboratory (NOAA) WPR Water Resource Planning WRC Water Resources Council WRC World Radiation Center WRD Water Resources Division (USGS and DOI) WRDD Water Resources Development Department (MAW) WRI World Resources Institute (Washington, D.C.) WRR World Radiometric Reference WRRC Water Resources Research Center WS wind speed WSC Water Survey of Canada WSI whole-sky imager WSMC Western Space and Missile Center WST Whitecap simulation tank WTH whole-tree harvest WTR Western Test Range (NASA) WUA weighted usable area WVR water vapor radiometer WWB Women's World Banking WWF World Wildlife Fund WWW World Weather Watch (WMO) WWO Waste Water Outflow WWSP86 Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986 WWW World Wide Web
X-SAR X-Band synthetic aperture radar XBT expendable bathythermograph (oceanography) XCTD Expendable Conductivity Temperature Depth (probe) XDR external data representation XIE X-ray Imaging Experiment XMM X-ray Multi-mirror Mission XRD X-ray diffraction
year (do not abbreviate this word) yr year (spell out)
ZEEI Exclusive Economic Zone of Indonesia ZPC zero point of change (hydrous iron and aluminum oxides)
Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss.
Glossary terms can be found in the Glossary list.
Carbon dioxide-related conversion tables can be found in the Conversion Tables list.