Data Sources

The LDEO database lists more than 3 million surface ocean pCO2 observations made since 1968. A large portion of the data is composed of observations from the continuous underway systems, such as those used aboard the National Science Foundation icebreakers Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence B. Gould operating primarily in the Southern Ocean, and the research ships operated by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory and the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The database also includes the observations made during a number of major national and international oceanographic programs such as Geophysical Sections Experiment (GEOSECS), Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Climate Variability (CLIVAR) Repeat Hydrography Project, Volunteer Observing Ships (VOS) Project and others, which were supported by the National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Department of Energy. A significant number of data have been contributed by international colleagues from many countries including Japan, Germany, France, UK, Iceland, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, and others. Table 1 lists the major contributors for the database.

Table 1. List of data contributors to the global surface water pCO2 LDEO database.
PI Name* Institution Country
Thorarinn S. Arnarson Marine Research Institute and University of Iceland Iceland
Dorothee C. E. Bakker School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia UK
Nicholas R. Bates Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences Bermuda
Richard Bellarby Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen Norway
Wei-Jun Cai University of Georgia USA
Francisco Chavez Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute USA
David W. Chipman** Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University USA
Bruno Delille Universite de Liege, Liege Belgium
Hein J. W. de Baar Netherland Institute for Sea Research Netherlands
Richard A. Feely Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration USA
Gernot Friederich Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute USA
John Goddard** Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University USA
Burke Hales College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University USA
Mario Hoppema Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Germany
Masao Ishii Meteorological Research Institute Japan
Truls Johannessen Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen Norway
Arne Koertzinger Institute of Marine Research Germany
Nicolas Metzl Laboratoire d'Oceanographie et du Climat, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie France
Takashi Midorikawa Meteorological Research Institute Japan
Timothy Newberger Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University USA
Yukihiro Nojiri National Institute for Environmental Studies Japan
Jon Olafsson Marine Research Institute and University of Iceland Iceland
Are Olsen Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen Norway
Christopher L. Sabine Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration USA
Ute Schuster School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich UK
Stewart C. Sutherland Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University USA
Colm Sweeney Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration USA
Taro Takahashi Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University USA
Bronte Tilbrook Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (CSIRO) Marine and Atmospheric Research Australia
Rik Wanninkhof Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration USA
Andrew Watson School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia UK
Ray F. Weiss Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego USA
C. S. Wong Institute of Ocean Sciences Canada
H. Yoshikawa-Inoue Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University Japan

*The PI names are given in the alphabetical order
**Retired


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