Rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are increasing ocean temperatures and affecting ocean chemistry (e.g., ocean acidification). Monitoring these important changes using ships and other platforms generates large amounts of data from heterogenous sources. Since its inception in 1993, when it became a member of the DOE/NOAA Ocean Carbon Science Team engaged in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the CDIAC Ocean Carbon Data Management Project has been organizing, quality assuring, documenting, archiving and distributing ocean carbon-related data collected via a number of U.S. and international ocean-observing programs.
CDIAC’s ocean carbon data collection includes discrete and underway measurements from a variety of platforms (e.g., research ships, commercial ships, buoys). The measurements come from deep and shallow waters from all oceans. Technological advances make it possible to deliver ocean carbon data real-time but questions about instrument reliability and data quality limit this practice at this moment. All ocean carbon data CDIAC receives come from individual investigators and groups following initial data review.
The CDIAC Ocean Carbon Data Management Project started in 1993 when CDIAC became a member of the DOE/NOAA Ocean Carbon Science Team with data management and permanent archive responsibilities for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) CO2 measurements. The resulting WOCE carbon database is available from the CDIAC Ocean Web site (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/CDIACmap.html). WOCE was a major component of the World Climate Research Program with the overall goal of better understanding the oceans role in climate and climatic changes resulting from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The CO2 survey took advantage of the sampling opportunities provided by the WHP cruises during this period between 1990 and 1998. The final data set covers approximately 23,000 stations from 42 WOCE cruises.
GLODAP is a cooperative effort of investigators funded for synthesis and modeling projects through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), DOE, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Cruises conducted as part of the WOCE, JGOFS, and the NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) over the decade of the 90s have generated oceanographic data of unparalleled quality and quantity. As of today, the GLODAP database consists of data from 122 WOCE, JGOFS, and other International and Historical Cruises. The data are available from the CDIAC GLODAP Web site and from the WAVES Search engine.
The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has produced a merged internally consistent data set of open ocean subsurface measurements for biogeochemical investigations, in particular, studies involving the carbon system. The original focus area was the North Atlantic Ocean, but over time the geographic extent expanded and CARINA now includes data from the entire Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, and the Southern Ocean.
The CARINA database includes data from 188 cruises. The salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon system and CFC data have been subjected to extensive quality control and adjustments have been made when necessary. The internally consistent data are available as three data products, one each for the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Oceans (CARINA Data Products). In addition, all of the individual cruise data files have been made available in WOCE exchange format in a single location (Cruise Summary Table) along with metadata and references. We strongly recommend users to employ the data products instead of the individual cruise files as the data in the latter have not been corrected for biases identified during the secondary QC. The CARINA effort is further described in the following as well as in the CARINA special issue of Earth System Science Data (ESSD) Journal.
PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for the data synthesis of ocean interior carbon and its related parameters in the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Section of Carbon and Climate (S-CC) supported the project. We have merged hydrographic/hydrochemical datasets from a total of 213 cruises, including those from cruises conducted between the late 1980s and 2000 but not stored in GLODAP, as well as CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography datasets from the 2000s. The adjustment values were suggested to account for the analytical offsets in the data of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients (nitrate and nitrite, phosphate, and silicic acid) for each cruise as a result of the secondary quality control procedure, based on the crossover analysis for the data from deep layers (Tanhua et al., 2010). We also merged a total of 59 adjusted datasets from Line P off the west coast of Canada. Finally, we have produced the adjusted PACIFICA database that consists of datasets from a total of 306 cruises that also include 34 datasets from WOCE Hydrographic Program cruises in the Pacific Ocean conducted in the 1990s.
Published in january 2016, GLODAPv2 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2) is an international data synthesis project for interior ocean inorganic carbon data and related variables for the global ocean. GLODAPv2 was officially instigated with the EU integrated project CARBOCHANGE in 2010. However, its history can be traced back much further than that as we began assembling a collection of data immediately in the wake of the release of the first version of GLODAP, GLODAPv1.1 (Key et al., 2004; Sabine et al., 2004) in anticipation of sufficient data, momentum and funding to assemble the next version. Meanwhile, the CARINA synthesis of carbon-relevant data from the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean was completed (Key et al., 2010, Tanhua et al. 2009) as was the Pacific effort, PACIFICA (Suzuki et al., 2013). Combined with GLODAPv1.1, these products formed the natural basis for GLODAPv2. The aim of GLODAPv2 was to unify the data of the first version of GLODAP (GLODAPv1.1) with the data from CARINA and PACIFICA, add any new data that were made available to us and fully re-evaluate all of these data to produce a global calibrated data product and mapped climatology. Complete and extensive documentation is provided in Olsen et al. (2016) and Lauvset et al. (2016).
International CLIVAR Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program and GO-SHIP Repeat Sections Project
CDIAC provides data management support for the International Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program (2001-2012) and GO-SHIP Repeat Sections Program (2013-present). The Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program carries out a systematic and global re-occupation of select WOCE/JGOFS hydrographic sections to quantify changes in storage and transport of heat, fresh water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and related parameters. The high-quality discrete measurements of carbon-related parameters are available via CDIAC Repeat Hydrography Web site, and the Mercury metadata search engine.
CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. The high-quality surface (underway) measurements of carbon-related parameters are available via CDIAC VOS Web site, the WAVES Search engine, and the Mercury metadata search engine.
The data presented in this database include the analyses of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), pressure of the equilibration, and barometric pressure in the outside air from the ship’s observation system.
CDIAC provides data management support for the Global CO2 Time-series and Moorings Project. The international groups from 18 countries have mounted sensors on moored buoys to provide high resolution time-series measurements of atmospheric boundary layer and surface ocean CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). The CO2 Time-series and Moorings Project is also coordinated by UNESCO IOCCP. The high-quality measurements of carbon-related parameters from the Moorings are available via CDIAC Time-series and Moorings Project Web site.
CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Coastal Carbon Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of carbon cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) carbon-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal area are available from CDIAC Global Coastal Carbon Data Project Web site.
In 2003, CDIAC implemented an instance of the Mercury metadata system to standardize and inventory CDIAC’s ocean data holdings. The Mercury metadata system was developed by staff in ORNL’s Computational Physics and Engineering Division. This catalog of CDIAC ocean holdings may be queried at http://mercury.ornl.gov/ocean/.
In 2007, after two years of internal development, CDIAC implemented the Web-Accessible Visualization and Extraction System (WAVES). This data interface permits users to search CDIAC GLODAP and CARINA discrete data and LDEO Database underway data and couples all standardized metadata from the Mercury system to each individual data set. The interface is available at http://cdiac3.ornl.gov/waves/discrete/ for discrete data search and at http://cdiac3.ornl.gov/waves/underway/ for underway data search.
For more information on CDIAC Ocean data products, please contact:
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
Environmental Sciences Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
U.S. Department of Energy
Building 4500N, Mail Stop 6290
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6290 U.S.A.
Tel: (865) 576-8449
Fax: (865) 241-4064
Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org