section1=Oceans section2=Highlights
New Website for CDIAC Ocean Project Coming Soon  
 Alex  Kozyr. 2006.

As part of CDIAC’s continuing ocean data efforts, CDIAC will soon launch a website for the CO2 Moorings and Time-series Project. The website will provide information about existing and planned moorings and time-series locations, and will provide access to data from 121 existing stations. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections.

Addition links on this article: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/Moorings/moorings.html

section1=Shrek section2=Highlights
2006 CDIAC Summer Students  
 The Editor. 2006.

Karmen Smith (left) worked this summer under Tom Boden. Karmen was responsible for updating this virtual newsletter, CDIAC Communications, and updating the fossil-fuel emissions pages in Trends On-Line. She also began building a photographic database which will be available in the future from CDIAC. She will be a sophomore majoring in Biology at the University of Samford where she also plays basketball. When not at the lab she enjoys hanging out with her friends, playing basketball and watching movies.

Erika Soderstrom (right) worked for Dale Kaiser. This summer she updated the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Daily Database through 2005, evaluated trends in U.S. snowfall patterns based on the updated data, and updated a few On-Line Trends climate publications. She will be a senior majoring in both Computer Science and Mathematics at the University of Tennessee. When away from the lab she enjoys riding horses competitively, cooking, and playing computer games.

section1=Atmospheric section2=Highlights
Atmospheric Levels of CO2 Continue to Rise  
 Tom Boden. 2006.

Data provided to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and records compiled by the CDIAC show atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and releases from fossil-fuel consumption globally continue to rise (see figure below).

Records representative of background tropospheric CO2 conditions furnished by the Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (GMD/NOAA) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) show annual levels of CO2 have risen above 380 parts per million (ppm). The rise, pattern, and trends are seen at sites worldwide and from continuous monitoring sites, as well as sites that employ less frequent flask sampling techniques. The longest continuous record of direct CO2 measurements is from Mauna Loa, Hawaii dating back to the late 1950s when annual CO2 levels were approximately 315 ppm.

Global records of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions and releases resulting from cement production show that more than 7 billion metric tons of carbon are now released annually to the atmosphere. Since 1751 over 300 billion metric tons of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these emissions have occurred since the mid 1970s. The latest CDIAC 2003 global fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimate, 7303 million metric tons of carbon, represents an all-time high and a 4.5% increase from 2002.

Addition links on this article: http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/

section1=Terrestrial section2=Highlights
Annual national soil carbon map for US agricultural lands coming soon  
Tristram O. West and   Craig C. Brandt. 2006.

Changes in land management occur annually on agricultural lands. These changes impact soil carbon stocks and net carbon flux from soils. To account for changes in local land management and soil carbon at regional and national scales, we developed a method that integrates field data, inventory data, and remote sensing images to estimate changes in soil carbon stocks at a 900m2 resolution. County level data for harvested crops and tillage intensity are integrated into one data product. Remote sensing data, soil boundaries and attributes, and county boundaries are queried for unique combinations of soils and land use at a sub-county resolution. Annual changes in soil carbon are estimated from changes in land management and from empirical estimates of soil change derived from field measurements. These changes are distributed to the sub-county level using Landsat-based remote sensing products. We have recently applied this integration method to an area in the mid-western US consisting of 679 counties approximately centered around Iowa (see Figure). We anticipate the completion of annual soil carbon flux maps for the entire US and availability from CDIAC in the coming months.

section1=Climate section2=Highlights
U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) now being developed at NCDC  
  NCDC. 2006.
Prepared by D.P. Kaiser, CDIAC

The U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) is a network of climate stations now being developed as part of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiative. Its primary goal is to provide future long-term homogeneous observations of temperature and precipitation that can be coupled to long-term historical observations for the detection and attribution of present and future climate change. Data from the USCRN will be used in operational climate monitoring activities and for placing current climate anomalies into an historical perspective. The USCRN will also provide the United States with a reference network that meets the requirements of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). If fully implemented, the network will consist of about 110 stations nationwide. Implementation of the USCRN is contingent on the availability of funding. Over time, this new network will in effect supplement the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp019/ndp019.html) in terms of monitoring the US climate.

For more information contact: kaiserdp@ornl.gov
Addition links on this article: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/uscrn/

section1=Emissions section2=Highlights
Emission reductions from Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism pass the one billion tonnes mark   
  UNFCCC. 2006.

According to the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat, the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM) is, as of June 9, 2006, estimated to generate more than one billion tonnes of emission reductions by the end of 2012. In addition to the implementation of climate-friendly policies at home, the 1997 landmark treaty allows industrialized countries to meet their emission targets through the treaty’s flexible mechanisms.

Addition links on this article: http://unfccc.int/2860.php

section1=Atmospheric section2=Highlights
AAAS Members Elected as Fellows  
  The Editor. 2006.

In September, the AAAS Council elected 376 members as Fellows of AAAS. These individuals will be recognized for their contributions to science at the Fellows Forum to be held on 18 February 2006 during the AAAS Annual Meeting in St. Louis. The new Fellows will receive a certificate and a blue and gold rosette pin as a symbol of their distinguished accomplishments.

Addition links on this article: http://www.aaas.org/aboutaaas/fellows/2004.shtml

section1=SeaLevel section2=Highlights
A twentieth century acceleration in global sea-level rise  
John A. Church and   Neil J.  White. 2006.

Multi-century sea-level records and climate models indicate an acceleration of sea-level rise, but no 20th century acceleration has previously been detected. A reconstruction of global sea level using tide-gauge data from 1950 to 2000 indicates a larger rate of rise after 1993 and other periods of rapid sea-level rise but no significant acceleration over this period. The authors extend the reconstruction of global mean sea level back to 1870 and find a sea-level rise from January 1870 to December 2004 of 195 mm, a 20th century rate of sea-level rise of 1.7 +/- 0.3 mm yr(-1) and a significant acceleration of sea-level rise of 0.013 +/- 0.006 mm yr(-2). This acceleration is an important confirmation of climate change simulations which show acceleration not previously observed. If this acceleration remained constant then the 1990 to 2100 rise would range from 280 to 340 mm, which is consistent with projections in the IPCC TAR.

Addition links on this article: http://www.agu.org/journals/scripts/highlight.php?pid=2005GL024826

section1=Emissions section2=Highlights
SOCCR: Emissions Overview  
Gregg  Marland et al. 2006.

CDIAC’s Gregg Marland served as the lead author for the second overview section of the SOCCR draft report entitled an Introduction to CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels. This overview covers information about the estimated CO2 emissions, the magnitude of national and regional emissions, emissions per month and/or state, and emissions by economic sectors. Each of these sections gives in depth information about emissions and also gives corresponding graphs.

Addition links on this article: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/SOCCR/pdf/SOCCR_PartII_Overview.pdf

section1=Land-Use section2=Highlights
National Land Cover Data 1992 available at CDIAC!  
Dr. Tristram O. West. 2005.

Now available from CDIAC, this data set is in one complete raster coverage of the USGS National Land Cover Data (NLCD). NLCD 1992 is a 21-class, land cover classification of the contiguous United States, derived from early to mid-1990s Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. A complete description of this data can found on the USGS site (http://landcover.usgs.gov/natllandcover.asp).

Addition links on this article: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/datasets/spatial/NLCD92/NLCD92.html

section1=Shrek section2=Highlights
CDIAC data used in Crichton book, "State of Fear"  
  The Editor. 2005.

Science fiction author, Michael Crichton, in his latest best selling novel, "State of Fear", repeatedly uses temperature data offered by CDIAC to generate many of the graphs used throughout his book. (see data sources listed in Appendix II). In his new techno-thriller, Crichton captures his reader's attention by blending scientific fact with pulse-pounding fiction. To access the climate data offered by CDIAC, please see data bases listed at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/by_new/bysubjec.html#climate.

section1=Land-Use section2=Highlights
ORNL's LandScan helps tsunami relief   
  The Editor. 2005.

ORNL News Release in Communications and Community Outreach: Relief agencies working to assist victims of the December tsunamis in the Indian Ocean are using a demographic database developed at ORNL. LandScan is a global population database that shows geographical distribution of population at one-kilometer resolution. Using population distribution maps, relief workers can easily and quickly determine the locations of potential tsunami victims who would otherwise be cut off from communication. CDIAC offers the database, "Global Population Distribution (1990), Terrestrial Area and Country Name Information on a One by One Degree Grid Cell Basis". The data base contains gridded (one degree by one degree) information on the world-wide distribution of the population for 1990 and country-specific information on the percentage of the country's population present in each grid cell, as well as the percentage of a country's total area in a grid cell and the country's percentage of the grid cell that is terrestrial. (See http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ndps/db1016.html for additional information).

section1=Oceans section2=Highlights
CDIAC develops Live Access Server (LAH) for GLODAP   
Mr. Alex Kozyr. 2005.

CDIAC recently developed and put online LAH (Live Access Server software), a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data, for the GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), a cooperative effort to coordinate global synthesis projects which are funded through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study - Synthesis and Modeling Project (JGOFS-SMP).

Addition links on this article: http://cdiac3.ornl.gov/las/servlets/dataset