Global Survey of CO2 in the Oceans
State Inventories of Greenhouse-Gas Emissions
ORNL DAAC Improvements
CDIAC Staff Changes
DOE's Action Plan Program
New Data Sets
New NDPs from CDIAC
Recent and Relevant
CO2 Conference in Australia
CDIAC Communications Online
Since 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy has supported a Global Survey of CO2 in the Oceans. This project arose from a long history of DOE-supported research into the fate of the energy-related pollutant CO2, including its fate in the oceans. The survey is a key component of the international JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) and is closely associated with the international WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment). In the course of this project, the Science Team that oversees the project has established close links with investigators involved in NOAA's complementary Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) as well as with numerous international investigators.
The DOE and NOAA Global CO2 surveys of the Indian, Pacific, and South Atlantic Oceans are now essentially complete. Only the North Atlantic Ocean remains to be sampled, and WOCE cruises to this region are planned between 1996 and 1998. About every 100 to 150 km along these cruise tracks, a vertical profile of 36 water samples is analyzed for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and at least one other carbonate-system parameter. In addition, almost every cruise has had continuous measurements of near-surface pCO2.
During the early stages of the DOE program, a great deal of attention was focused on the development and dissemination of standardized analytical equipment, standard operating procedures, and reference materials and quality-assurance procedures. These developments were freely shared with national and international investigators involved in similar work. As a result, the overall data quality that has resulted from this program (and related programs) has been excellent. For example, the accuracy of the DIC data is at least 4 to 5 times better than that achieved during previous investigations. In terms of data quantity, the U.S. effort alone (i.e., DOE and NOAA) has produced a data set that is five times larger (in terms of number of samples analyzed) than the entire pre-WOCE ocean CO2 data inventory.
Data collected by both the DOE and NOAA programs are now being assembled at CDIAC and being published as a series of numeric data packages. As these data become available, emphasis on data interpretation increases. Several new approaches to examining the ocean carbon cycle are currently being tailored to this emerging data set. Examples of such new analytical approaches include:
Identification of Anthropogenic CO2: The anthropogenic CO2 content of seawater can, in principle, be calculated directly from DIC, total-alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen measurements made in the interior of the ocean together with knowledge of the stoichiometry (carbon:oxygen) for the respiration of marine organic matter and the distribution of CO2 at the sea surface. Quantitative use of this approach is nontrivial, however, and early attempts were heavily criticized. Improved methods for tackling this problem are now being developed and are addressing many of the earlier criticisms. The excellent data quality and geographic coverage of the CO2 survey data together with the corresponding transient-tracer (e.g., tritium and CFC) data provided by WOCE promise to greatly improve the applicability of this approach. At absolute minimum, this approach will provide an independent cross-check for model-based estimates of CO2 uptake in certain key oceanic regions (e.g., the ocean's subtropical gyres). Such model validation is expected to provide some "surprises."
CO2 Transport within the Ocean: One of the major goals of the WOCE
program is to quantify the transport and storage of heat and
freshwater within the world's oceans. The techniques being used to
address these problems can be combined directly with the CO2 survey
data to examine the large-scale, north-south transport of CO2 by
the ocean circulation. Such information, when combined with
estimates of atmospheric CO2 transport, can be used to infer the
large-scale distribution of sources and sinks of CO2 (both natural
and anthropogenic). Net meridional transport estimates from the
South Atlantic Ocean, when combined with estimates from other
oceanic regions (e.g., the CO2 transport through the Bering Strait
into the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic) provide information on
the large-scale convergence or divergence of oceanic CO2. This, in
turn, can be related to the net air-sea flux of CO2 over large
spatial scales. Such transport and divergence/convergence estimates
are starting to provide valuable, independent, cross-checks (i.e.,
validation) of ocean carbon cycle model predictions.
|This article was authored by Douglas W. R. Wallace and Juergen Holfort of the Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is based on the publications Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories by D. W. R. Wallace, published in 1995 by Ocean Observing System Development Panel, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, and "The Meridional CO2 Transport in the South Atlantic," submitted to Marine Chemistry in March of 1996 by J. Holfort, K. M. Johnson, A. Putzka, B. Schneider, G. Siedler, and D. W. R. Wallace. A fuller development of the topic can be found in these sources.|
During the past year, CDIAC's User Services Group, the folks who respond to users' requests for information and data, has experienced several changes. Debbie Shepherd, who assisted in numeric data preparation for transmission in response to user requests, moved from CDIAC to the ARM Archive, which is also located here at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We certainly miss her but wish her the best of luck in her new position. Karen Gibson, who was previously with the Division Operations Section of ORNL's Environmental Sciences Division, joined CDIAC's user services team and is assisting in filling user requests for information and data products. We welcome Karen to CDIAC.
Tracking and responding to CDIAC users and their needs is an ongoing process within CDIAC's User Services. In FY 1995, User Services responded to more than 7,100 requesters through traditional means (letter, telephone, and fax); via the file transfer protocol (FTP); and over the World Wide Web (WWW). From FY 1985 through FY 1995, User Services responded to more than 67,500 requests.
By taking advantage of today's advanced technologies, CDIAC's User Services Group is continually striving to keep up with and meet our users' changing needs. CDIAC has previously solicited feedback through surveys and questionnaires to gain information about our users and any special information needs or interests they may have. As CDIAC takes advantage of the Internet and as our users explore and become more acquainted with the Internet, we hope to meet user needs more quickly and efficiently.
If you have not already done so, we encourage you to make use of the services CDIAC provides via the WWW. This area will experience rapid change throughout the coming year, and we hope to provide many new features to our users during this time. One such feature is a keyword-search capability that will allow users to quickly examine CDIAC's holdings. We also hope to offer many new online products.
As a user of CDIAC's products and services, you and your needs are very important to us. We rely on your feedback, whether by phone, fax, mail, or the comments section on the WWW. This feedback helps us to better understand our users and their needs. Your cooperation in the past by notifying CDIAC of pertinent information has been an enormous help. We hope you will continue to communicate your needs and wishes so that we may assist you at all levels.
We appreciate your allowing us to serve you.
Sonja B. Jones, CDIAC User Services
Last October, as Director of the World Data CenterA for Atmospheric Trace Gases, I had the privilege of attending the All World Data Center Conference held in Wageningen, The Netherlands. It was the first time since the inception of the World Data Center (WDC) System in 1956 that representatives of the WDCs in China, Europe, India, Japan, Russia, and the United States had ever met to share accomplishments and discuss problems common to the WDCs. It was a thought-provoking meeting that will benefit my data center, the WDC System, and (most importantly) users of scientific data.
At the conference, representatives from 37 of the existing 44 WDCs presented overviews of their data centers. I was impressed by the collective accomplishments of the WDCs and the WDC System. I was also struck by the differences among the individual WDCs with respect to operating principles, available resources, and data holdings. During the meeting, several key issues emerged, including the future of the WDC System, impediments to data exchange, and the impacts that changing technology will have on data-center operations.
The WDC System is successful and offers much-needed data support to the world's scientists, but the system must evolve as the scientific needs of the world's scientists change. The system needs to improve its ability to offer data support to large, multinational, interdisciplinary programs. All member centers should be committed to a flexible, distributed WDC System that fosters the use and sharing of the most advanced or appropriate technology, not only online (Internet) technology but also data-storage media, software, and data-visualization tools.
Many of the holdings of the WDCs have commercial value, and some WDCs are being pressured by sponsors to sell such data. These pressures are impediments to data exchange, contradict the working principles of the WDC System, and threaten the existence of the present WDC System. Scientists often view their data as intellectual property and are often reluctant to archive their data in WDCs because they fear they will not receive proper credit. The WDC System must address this fear by implementing practices that ensure that the contributing scientists will receive just and proper credit for their work.
Technology, particularly the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW), is revolutionizing the way WDCs operate. The WDCs should continue to make full use of these technologies without compromising the basic functions and services of the WDCs. Our mission is to provide long-term stewardship of data, compilation of data documentation, quality assurance of data, analysis of data, and ready access to data. Please recognize that, although distributed data systems are useful for finding and disseminating data, they do not replace the current WDCs. A WWW home page is not a data center.
In closing, if you know of ways that CDIAC and the WDCA for Atmospheric Trace Gases can better serve you, please tell us. We need your guidance. We will do what we can with our resources to meet your needs.
For several years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been engaged in a collaborative program with universities and other governmental agencies to produce state inventories of greenhouse-gas emissions. These inventories are being compiled with a standardized methodology (comparable to that for the national-level inventories that are being conducted in accordance with the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change).
To obtain information about the EPA program or a copy of the EPA report State Workbook, Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2nd ed., EPA 230-B-95-001, January 1995, contact:
Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation
Mail Code 2122
Washington, DC 20460
Currently, the EPA's State and Local Climate Change Outreach Program (which also assists states with climate-change mitigation strategies) is working with researchers in 29 states and Puerto Rico to produce the state-by-state emissions inventories. To date, such inventories have been completed for 18 states. The participating states and the contacts from whom you can obtain copies of the completed inventories are listed in a CDIAC Factsheet, State Inventories of Greenhouse-Gas Emissions, available by fax or mail from CDIAC (see the order sheet in this issue) or over the Internet from our WWW home page. CDIAC does NOT have copies of these reports for distribution; you must contact the appropriate project manager to obtain each state's publication.
The Department of Energy's Environmental Science Division and its Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) are organizing an ARM/CHAMMP/PCMDI workshop to be held May 6-7, 1996, at the John Wayne Marina in Sequim, Washington. The intention of this Workshop is to bring together modeling and observational groups that are working towards improving the representation and diagnosis of solar radiative transfer in climate models.
The main cause of the systematic errors found in the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) experiment is related to net cloud radiative forcing. In a subset of models, these errors stem primarily from errors in shortwave cloud forcing. Errors are large enough to have a significant impact on results. Beyond errors in modeling cloud fraction, a major source of error lies in descriptions of cloud optics and radiative transfer in general.
To address the errors identified by AMIP and to support the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE), this workshop will:
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) is one of nine DAACs sponsored by NASA as part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The ORNL DAAC focuses on biogeochemical dynamics and ecological data based on field measurements with worldwide coverage. Recently, it upgraded its information management systems so users can more easily search for and acquire the data it holds. Improved capabilities include: geographical querying from a world map, chronological querying, data browsing, viewing of order history and status, changing your user passkey, and leaving comments.
Through the ORNL DAAC, users can access site-specific, ground-based data (such as temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, radiation, soil moisture, and vegetative growth) as well as regional- and global-scale data and information useful for understanding global change. The ORNL DAAC can be accessed by telnetting to ornlims. ornl.gov 6493 or through its home page at http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov.
|Contacts for the ORNL DAAC: Jerry Curry or Merilyn Gentry, ORNL DAAC User Service s Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6407, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6407, USA, Telephone: (865) 241-3952, FAX: (865) 573-3665, E-mail: email@example.com|
Bob Cushman, Director
As I mentioned in the past issue of CDIAC Communications, several valued members of CDIAC left us during 1995: Tammy Beaty, Don Lue, Laura Morris, Bob Sepanski, Fred Stoss, Penny Sullenberger, and Russ Vose. In addition, Debbie Shepherd and Cindy Woodard also left CDIAC: Debbie, to join the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, also here in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Cindy, to pursue opportunities in the private sector.
Dale Kaiser has replaced Tom Boden as head of our Data Systems Group, coordinating the efforts of the staff who produce CDIAC's value-added numeric data products. Tom will still be in CDIAC, but placing a greater personal emphasis on directing CDIAC's World Data CenterA for Atmospheric Trace Gases; Tom will also continue as Deputy Director of CDIAC.
A few new staff members have joined CDIAC. Entering the Data
Systems Group are Linda Allison and Antoinette Brenkert, who are
working on a variety of data projects, including U.S. snow-depth
data, the effects of elevated CO2 on vegetation, and emissions of
carbon from soil and fossil fuels. Karen Gibson has joined the User
Services Group and is maintaining CDIAC's customer database system
and assisting in the distribution of the data and information
products available from CDIAC. Dana Griffith is handling CDIAC's
secretarial needs (as well as those of other Environmental Sciences
Division staff colocated with CDIAC). Forrest Hoffman has joined
the Computing Systems Group and has the lead role in enhancing the
functionality and appearance of the World Wide Web home page that
CDIAC developed for the Global Change Data and Information System
of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. We welcome Linda,
Antoinette, Karen, Dana, and Forrest to CDIAC and are confident
that they will do an excellent job serving CDIAC's customers and
Information may also be obtained by calling DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Customer Service Center at 1-800-363-3732.
The U.S. Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) was
created by nine Federal agencies, including the Department of
Energy, to make global-change data accessible to researchers,
policymakers, educators, industry, and the public. The following
article provides an update on one of the GCDIS services, the Global
Change Master Directory, which was developed by the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration as a cross-cutting tool to
enhance access to Earth-science and global-change data and
information from GCDIS agencies and other sources. The World Wide
Web home page of GCDIS can be located at
The NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) project, operated at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, continues to build a database of Earth Science dataset descriptions in the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) while developing search tools for retrieving the information. The scope will expand in the coming year to include ecosystem and socioeconomic data. The science coordinators have focused on national and international agencies, programs, projects, experiments, and universities while also updating data already in the system. The system developers have focused on extensive upgrades to system source code, new writing tools, a free-text search capability, and links to sample images.
The GCMD continues to receive new data from institutions that had previously contributed information about their data holdings. At the same time, a large number of new U.S. and foreign data sources have been added to the database. With the help of the World Wide Web (WWW), the GCMD project has gathered information about such international data sources as the British Oceanographic Data Center, the British Atmospheric Data Center, the British Antarctic Survey, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (Brazil), the University of Burgundy (France), the University of Tokyo, the National Geographic Services of Spain, the Australian National Climate Center, the Austrian National Mapping Agency, the European Meteorological Satellite Organization, the Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information, and the World Conservation Monitoring Center.
The GCMD home page (http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa. gov) features the ability to:
The information in the GCMD can be displayed in several formats, including those of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and the Government Information Locator Service. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites International Directory Network, of which the GCMD is the American coordinating node, comprises several information systems around the world. Hypertext links are provided to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth EOS missions, projects, and DAACs. GCMD project news includes conferences attended, usage statistics, new dataset entries, hot topics, system upgrades, press releases, and dataset announcements. On many GCMD pages, "Comments" or "GCMD Staff Scientists" buttons are provided for assistance.
Future enhancements include upgrading discipline, parameter, location, source, and sensor keywords; upgrading PC-based and WWW writing tools, and adding new fields to the records in compliance with FGDC standards.
To list your data in the GCMD, use the GCMD DIFWEB tool (http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/difweb) or contact:
7701 Greenbelt Rd., Suite 400
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Phone: (301) 441-4214
FAX: (301) 441-9486
Telnet: gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov; username: gcdir
The Fifth International Carbon Dioxide Conference will be held in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, on Sept. 812, 1997. The next in a quadrennial series, this conference will present advances in knowledge about the global carbon cycle, carbon budgets, and the prediction of future atmospheric CO2 levels.
Papers about such advances made since the Carquieranne conference in 1993 are being solicited from experienced researchers in the many disciplines that contribute to this field of science as well as from newcomers to carbon-cycle research. All submissions will be subjected to rigorous refereeing by an international program committee. Copies of the formal request for papers can be obtained from the Conference Secretariat:
Paul N. Holper
CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research
PMB #1, Aspendale, 3195, Victoria, Australia
Telephone: 61 3 9239 4661
Fax: 61 3 9239 4444
|DB1001/R1, The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network
R. Prinn, D. Cunnold, P. Fraser, R. Weiss, P. Simmonds, B. Miller,
F. Alyea, and A. Crawford.
Continuous high-frequency gas-chromatographic measurements of CH4,
N2O, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CF2ClCFCl2, CH3CCl3, and CCl4 from globally
DB1002, ICRCCM Infrared (Clear-Sky) Line-by Line Radiative Fluxes A. Arking, B. Ridgway, T. Clough, M. Iacono, B. Fomin, A. Trotsenko, S. Freidenreich, and D. Schwarzkopf. Fluxes for ICRCCM-prescribed clear-sky cases; radiative flux and cooling-rate profiles given for specified atmospheric profiles for temperature, water vapor, and ozone-mixing ratios.
DB1003, A Computer-Based Atlas of Global Instrumental Climate Data R. S. Bradley, L. G. Ahern, and F. T. Keimig. Color-shaded and contoured images of global, gridded instrumental data (anomaly maps of surface temperature, sea-level pressure, 500- mbar geopotential heights, and percentages of reference-period precipitation) presented as a computer-based atlas.
DB1004, Alaskan Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data T. R. Karl, R. G. Baldwin, M. G. Burgin, D. R. Easterling, R. W. Knight, and P. Y. Hughes. Monthly temperature (minimum, maximum, and mean) and total monthly precipitation data for 47 Alaskan stations.
DB1005, FORAST Database S. B. McLaughlin, D. J. Downing, T. J. Blasing, B. L. Jackson, D. J. Pack, D. N. Duvick, L. K. Mann, and T. W. Doyle. Radial growth measurements for 50 or more years from more than 7000 trees in 15 northeastern U.S. states along with data on a variety of measured and calculated indices of stand characteristics, climate, and anthropogenic pollutants.
DB1006, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 3-Dimensional (3-D) Global Tracer Transport Model I. Fung. Input files used in simulations of atmospheric CO2 using the GISS 3-D global tracer-transport model.
DB1007, Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data Base for the Period 1979 _1992 M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen. Continuous automated atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements taken at the atmospheric monitoring facility in Cape Meares, Oregon.
DB1008, Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratios_The NOAA/CMDL Global
Cooperative Air Sampling Network,
|P. M. Lang, K. A. Masarie, and L. P. Steele.
Atmospheric methane mixing ratios from flask air samples collected
weekly at 44 fixed sites and along shipboard cruise tracks in the
Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea.|
DB1009, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group 1, 1994: Modelling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions I. G. Enting, T. M. L. Wigley, and M. Heimann (eds.). Projections of the relation between future CO2 concentrations and future industrial emissions.
DB1010, Globally Averaged Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations: Monthly and Annual Data for the Period 1975_1992 M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen. Globally averaged atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon 11 from flask air samples.
DB1011, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratios NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Cooperative Air Sampling Network, 1988_1993 P. C. Novelli and K. A. Masarie. CO mixing ratios in parts per billion from weekly measurements.
DB1012, A Global 1 Degree by 1 Degree Distribution of Atmospheric/Soil CO2 Consumption by Continental Weathering and of Riverine HCO3 Yield P. A. Suchet and J.-L. Probst. Estimates of the net flux of atmospheric-soil CO2 produced by a model and the associated bicarbonate river flux referenced to a 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude world grid.
DB1013, Global and Latitudinal Estimates of 13C from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture R. J. Andres, G. Marland, and S. Bischof. Estimates of the annual mean value of 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1860 to 1992 and estimates of the value of 13C for 1x-latitude bands for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1991, and 1992.
DB1014, In situ Carbon-13 and Oxygen-18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982_1993 R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, and M. Trolier. Data from a weekly sampling of atmospheric CO2 to determine by mass spectroscopy the stable-isotope ratios for oxygen and carbon to obtain a globally representative signal.
DB1015, Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5-Degree-Grid-Cell Basis J. W. Raich and C. S. Potter. Predictions of the spatial and temporal patterns of global carbon emissions from terrestrial soils.
In recent months, CDIAC Communications has made its debut on the World Wide Web. The past two issues are now on the CDIAC home page, and this issue will be available soon after its release in hard copy.
The newsletter has been brought up on the Web by Tommy Nelson and Karen Gibson of CDIAC, and they have done a marvelous job.
The Web versions have several advantages over the printed version. For example:
The last advantage was made vividly obvious when Karen converted the Fall 1995 issue of CDIAC Communications to an electronic document. She was able to use the original full-color maps of Costa Rica that Charlie Hall's computer model produced rather than the black-and-white renditions that we used on the cover of that issue. The color maps were a lot more striking, understandable, and informative.
In the previous issue, we urged readers to consider subscribing to CDIAC Communications as an electronic publication rather than as a printed one. The e-mail addresses of those readers that responded are being entered into a listserver, and they will receive an e-mail notice as soon as a new issue of CDIAC Communications appears on the Web. At the same time, their names will be dropped from the mailing list of the printed version. We hope that this effort will bring the newsletter to our readers in a timely manner, in an expanded format, and at a lower cost. Check out CDIAC Communications on the World Wide Web at
and consider using the electronic alternative of delivery and access. Electronic subscriptions are available by sending an e-mail message that contains your e-mail address, your name and address as it appears on the mailing label attached to this issue, and the message "Subscribe to electronic CDIAC Communications" to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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