2013 Global Carbon Project
(December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2)
Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013
Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013.
"This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report.
Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36 billion tonnes by the end of this year, or 61% above emissions in 1990, Dr Canadell said. The 2013 growth comes on top of a similar 2.2% increase in 2012 reinforcing a slower than average growth.
The GCP provides an annual report of carbon dioxide emissions, land and ocean sinks and accumulation in the atmosphere, incorporating data from multiple research institutes from around the world.
The 2013 report also shows that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increased in 2012 at a faster rate than the average over the past 10 years because of a combination of continuing growth in emissions and a decrease in land carbon sinks from very high levels in the previous two years. Carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere to land in 2012 was lower than the very high levels in 2011 and 2010, returning to average levels of the last decade.
"The high levels for land carbon uptake in 2011 and 2010 were associated with La Niña weather patterns, and contributed to slower than typical increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide", said Dr Mike Raupach of CSIRO, a co-author of the report. "These temporarily high uptake levels have now abated, helping to explain the higher carbon dioxide growth in 2012".
Growth rates for major emitter countries in 2012 were 5.9% (China), −3.7% (USA), −1.3% (EU28), and 7.7% (India). The 2012 carbon dioxide emissions breakdown is coal (43%), oil (33%), gas (18%), cement (5.3%) and gas flaring (0.6%).
Cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide from all sources (fossil fuels plus land use change) since 1870 will reach 2015 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide this year, says Dr Raupach. "A continuation of the emissions growth trends observed since 2000 would place the world on a path to reach 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times in 30 years"
The 2013 figures coincide with the global launch of the Global Carbon Atlas, an online platform to explore, visualise and interpret the emissions data at the global, regional and national scales (www.globalcarbonatlas.org).
The full data and methods are published today in the journal Earth System Science Data Discussions, and data and other graphic materials can be found at: www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget.
The Global Carbon Budget 2013 is a collaborative effort of the global carbon cycle science community coordinated by the Global Carbon Project.
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Full details on how to cite the data are given at the top of each page. For research projects, if the data are essential to the work, or if an important result or conclusion depends on the data, co-authorship may need to be considered. The Global Carbon Project facilitates access to data to encourage its use and promote a good understanding of the carbon cycle. Respecting original data sources is key to help secure the support of data providers to enhance, maintain and update valuable data.
Full Global Carbon Budget 2013
C. Le Quéré, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, R. M. Andrew, T. Boden, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, R. Moriarty, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, A. Arvanitis, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, S. C. Doney, A. Harper, I. Harris, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, S. D. Jones, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Körtzinger, C. Koven, N. Lefèvre, A. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. Schwinger, J. Segschneider, B. D. Stocker, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, N. Viovy, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, C. Yue, S. Zaehle, 2013. Global Carbon Budget 2013. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., submitted. http://www.earth-system-science-data.net/
Further information is available on: http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget.
Carbon Budget 2012
Le Quéré, C., R. J. Andres, T. Boden, T. Conway, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, G. Marland, G. P. Peters, G. R. van der Werf, A. Ahlström, R. M. Andrew, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, P. Ciais, S. C. Doney, P. Friedlingstein, C. Huntingford, A. K. Jain, C. Jourdain, E. Kato, R. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, S. Levis, P. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, M. Raupach, J. Schwinger, S. Sitch, B. D. Stocker, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle and N. Zeng. The Global Carbon Budget 1959 - 2011. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, doi:10.5194/essdd-5-165-2013, 2013. http://www.earth-syst-sci-data-discuss.net/5/165/2013/.
Peters, G., R.M. Andrews, T. Boden, J.G. Canadell, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, G. Marland, M.R. Raupach and C. Wilson, 2013. The challenge to keep global warming below 2°C. Nature Climate Change, 3, 4-6.
Carbon Budget 2011
Peters, G., Marland, G., Le Quéré, C., Boden, T., Canadell, J.G., and Raupach, M.R., 2012. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Nature Climate Change, 2: pp. 2-4.
Carbon Budget 2010
Friedlingstein, P., Houghton, R.A., Marland, G., Hackler, J., Boden, T.A., Conway, T.J., Canadell, J.G., Raupach, M.R., Ciais, P., and Le Quéré, C., 2010. Update on CO2 emissions. Nature Geoscience, 3, 811-812.
Carbon Budget 2009
Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Canadell, J.G., Marland, G., Bopp, L., Ciais, P., Conway, T.J., Doney, S.C., Feely, R., Foster, P., Friedlingstein, P., Gurney, K., Houghton, R.A., House, J.I., Huntingford, C., Levy, P.E., Lomas, M.R., Majkut, J., Metzl, N., Ometto, J.P., Peters, G.P., Prentice, I.C., Randerson, J.T., Running, S.W., Sarmiento, J.L., Schuster, U., Sitch, S., Takahashi, T., Viovy, N., van der Werf, G.R., Woodward, F.I., 2009. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience, 2, 831-836. Requests reprints at: email@example.com.
Carbon Budget 2007
Canadell, J.C., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Fields, C., Buitenhuis, E.T., Ciais, P., Conway, T.J., Gillett, N., Houghton, R.A., and Marland, G., 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. PNAS, 104, 18866-18870.
Carbon Budget 2006
Raupach, M.R., Marland, G., Ciais, P., Le Qu‚r‚, C., Canadell, J.G., Klepper, G., and C.B. Field, C.B., 2007. Global and Regional Drivers of Accelerating CO2 Emissions. PNAS, 104, 10288-10293.